unit 3 pe

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Disability in Sport

Inclusion- a policy that no one should experience learning barriers because of their disability, gender, ethnicity, race,culture or social group

Disability exists in 4 categories:

1. Mental

2. Physical

3. Temporary

4. Permanent

Ellie Simmonds is an example of a Paralymian swimmer

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It is a legal requirement that all facilities cater the disabled by:

Access- doors and doorways have to be wide enough for wheelchairs access and ramps need to be provided

Parking- disabled bays must be marked and made available

Provision- Lifts must allow access to upper floors and disabled toilets

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  • Increasing coverage- raise awareness
  • Wheelchair and blind athletes feature strongly in televised coverage of London marathon
  • Televised coverage of Paralympic games
  • Dame Tanni Grey Thompson helping raise awareness

Inclusive Fitness Initiative

  • Scheme set up by Sport england
  • Aim=  ensure disabled people get profit from physical, social and psychological benefits associated with fitness
  • Making it easier for all to participate in sport
  • Provision of access to specialised equipment

What can be done to improve disability in sports?

  • More specialised coaches
  • More centres welcoming disabled participants
  • more specialised equipment
  • Access to facilities
  • Lottery grants
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Roles in Sport


Participating and performing in a sport/acitivty to develop performance

To improve good knowledge of skills, activity, tactics, playing positions and techniques are needed

There are structures for the performer to progress:

  • School- provide the learning of fundamental skills and develop skills by providing clubs and teams
  • Clubs- Reginal and local participation status can be gained and selection for internation events 

Sports participation pyramid

Foundation- pe and recreational sports (school)
Participation- sports clubs and leisure facilities- free time

Performance- local and regional coaching and training

Elite- olympic and paralympic 

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Roles in sport


Bringing together the main ingrediants of a competition at the right time, place, in order to maximise promotion, participation and high quality performance

They oversee the event 

All aspects of arrangement are down to them:

  • facilities
  • time
  • funds
  • personnel (officials, volunteers)
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Roles in sport


Training and instructing and individual or team to try and improve their level of performance by developing skills and techniques

Skills needed:

  • good communication skills to share his knowledge of the sport
  • knowledge of safety 
  • how to carry out a risk assessmet
  • observant to analyse performance
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Roles in sport


Applying the rules of the activity and making decisions

Skills needed: 

  • good understanding of rules and event
  • good communication skills to share rules and regulation
  • consistant decisions
  • knowledge and criteria for scoring, measuring and timing events
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Social groupings- Peers


people of the same age/status as you

positive effects

  • Support your views and participation
  • encouragement
  • listen to advice
  • admire/follow their example
  • join in with them 

Negative effects

  • Go along with negative views
  • choosing not to be active because your friends arent
  • not going to training when your friend doesnt go 
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Social groupings- Family

Positive effects:

  • Role model
  • Financial support
  • Provide transport for training and matches
  • Encouragement and motivation

Negative effects:

  • Poor role modal
  • Lack of financial support
  • Lack of social support
  • Pressure to focus on academic work
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Social groupings- Gender

Positive effects:

  • Less of a recent issue
  • more opportunities for women to play the same sport as men
  • More opportunities for female roles within sport

Negative effects:

  • Some gender differences do exist
  • different payments for different genders
  • different advertisments for sports 
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Social groupings- ethnicity

A group of people with a common national or cultural tradition

Positive effects:

  • Role models- increase in ethnic minority participation in elite support

Negative effects:

  • Traditional views dont always support participation
  • Influenced by visibility of role models of similar racial background
  • Incidences of racial abuse 
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Classification by body type


  • Slightly built
  • delicate body
  • narrow shoulders and hips
  • lean
  • fragile


  • Round/pear shaped
  • Narrow shoulders and broad hips
  • Carry weight around waist and on hips and upper thighs


  • Athletic build
  • muscluar, large trunk
  • broad shoulders, narrow hipps
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Risk and challenge

Controlling risk in venues:

  • strict health and safety
  • police and stewards
  • no litter
  • no sharp objects


  • must compete in correct age, weight and skill group 

Outdoor and adventure activities:

  • layers of clothing
  • sturdy boots with grip
  • temp drops as altitude raises
  • whistle- attract attention
  • first aid
  • ensure everything works before leaving
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Risk and challenge

Risks in games:

  • experienced for competiton
  • age group
  • qualified officials in charge
  • knowledge of rules and sport
  • play within the rules 
  • spot dangers and prepare for them

Experience of the leader:

  • should assess the ability of crew members before planning
  • knowledge of safety procedures
  • encourage weakest member
  • correct decisions under pressure
  • keep morale high

Risk assessments- form that outlines the possible risks of an event

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the bodys response to a change requiring physical or mental or emotional adjustment


  • agression
  • increased arousal
  • muscle tightness
  • decline in motivation

Apprehensive- fear about the future

motivation- drive and desire to succeed

Anxiety-negative form o stress

Stress management techniques:

  • relaxation
  • deep breathing
  • positive self talk
  • Thought stopping
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A state of extreme mental, physical tiredness as a result of extreme exertion


  • Muscular fatigue- cause the athlete to stop completely
  • concdentration levels might decline
  • athlete make mistakes
  • inncorrect technique
  • can lead to injury if the athlete doesnt stop

feeling of stress and fatigue are linked- feelings of anxiety can cause stress and tension in the muscles 

Boredom/tedium- athletes who get bored in training are less likely to achieve

Negative feedback- athletes suffering from fatigue may look as if they are putting no effort in and may get critised

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Personality types


  • quiet and shy
  • prefer individual sports where skill and concentration are needed


  • more outgoing and confident
  • prefer team sports
  • high level of excitment
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  • correct technique= essential to prevent injury

internally caused injuries:

  • overuse injuries- performing/training too much e.g. tennis elbow
  • sudden injuries- strain on the body

Externally caused injuries:

  • foul play/incorrect actions
  • impact injuries- contact/equipment
  • equipment/clothing
  • accidents
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Type of injury

Dislocation- occurs at a joint where one bone comes out of its normal position against another

Sprain- overstretching or tearing of LIGAMENTS at a joint

Strain- overstretching of a muscle


cause- rapid cooling of the body

treatment- prevention - wear plenty of clothing, insulate casaulty with clothing/blankets, shelter casaulty from elements, provide hot drinks, send for help

Precautions:                                                           Soft tissue injury treatment:

  • risk assessment                                                 R- rest
  • warmup and warm down                                     I- ice
  • follow the rules and code of conduct                  C- compression

                                                                              E- elevation

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Positive impacts of stress

  • raises motivation
  • raises effort
  • inc arousal
  • adrenaline
  • improve confidence

Causes of pressure/stress:

  • playing infront of a crowd
  • playing on your own
  • playing after an injury
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Attitude and etiquette

unwritten code of behaviour a player stands by when competing/not enforced by the rules

Where it should take place:

  • after an injury
  • respect in rugby
  • a batters honesty in cricket
  • in the face of defeat
  • in the face of success

Bad sportsmanship can be punished by the referee in attempt to discourage players from behaving in that way


  • each game has its own set of rules
  • infringement- action in a game that breaks the rules
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