- Created by: Megan_x_greally
- Created on: 30-12-19 12:12
Areas of research
• Health, i.e. treatment, health policy, practices in health care
• Social care, i.e. interventions, social care policy, practices in social care
• Childcare, i.e. child development, early years and childcare policy, practices in early years and childcare
Purpose of research
• to improve outcomes for individuals
• to establish an evidence-base for treatments/interventions
• to improve practice
• to identify gaps in provision
• to identify the needs of groups or individuals
• to inform policy
• to increase knowledge and understanding
• to measure impact
• Multi-methodology (mixed methods)
Quantitative methodology assumes that things can be measured reliably. It involves using objective measurements and analysing statistical or numerical data. The aim is to either build evidence for theories / hypotheses or to disprove them.
Qualitative methodology recognises that some things can’t be measured. Data collected is usually words rather than numbers. The aim is to achieve in-depth understanding of the aspects studied.
Multi-methodology acknowledges that qualitative and quantitative methodologies are complementary and can be used together in a research study to gain a holistic understanding. Quantitative methodologies are best for finding out what is happening. Qualitative methodologies are best for exploring why and how things are the way they are.
* Experimental method (Randomised Controlled Trial)
* Observation, i.e. formal and informal
* Interviews, i.e. structured, semistructured, unstructured, focus groups
* Case study
* Action research
* Literature review, i.e. journals, books
* Other documentary sources, i.e. government organisations
* Published statistics, i.e. census data, government statistics, e.g. ONS, DH, DfE
establish cause and effect; control over variables; pre-test and post-test; careful measurement of results.
Representative sample; closed questions, use of Likert scales; open questions; administered by post/email/telephone/face-to-face.
Structured (standardised, checklist)
Unstructured (natural behaviour, field notes).
Structured (closed question, schedule)
Unstructured (open questions, tape recorded and transcribed).
In-depth study of individual, group, organisation, variety of methods and sources of data, study over a period of time.
Research into practice, practitioner as researcher, solves problems, in real settings
Participants in research
* Whole population
* Random sample
* Stratified sample
* Opportunity sample
* Provide benefit (i.e. health research)
* Cause no harm
* Obtain informed consent
* Protect anonymity or confidentiality
* Avoid deception
* Allow the right to withdraw
* Ensure transparency and integrity
importance of ethics
* Human Rights Act
* Data Protection Act
* Organisational procedures, i.e. ethical review boards
* independence of research (i.e. who has commissioned it? what is the purpose of the research?
* access to information
* who the research may affect i.e.vulnerable adults, children
ethics in practice
* Keeping participants informed (i.e. information sheets, sessions)
* Obtaining informed consent from participants
* Maintaining anonymity (i.e. pseudonyms, no identifying information)
* Confidentiality when anonymity is not possible, with informed consent
* Responsible use of research findings
• Library search
• Internet search
• Use of key term
• Developing a focus/theme/topic for research
• Writing good research questions/hypotheses, i.e. relevant, manageable in scope, original/Interesting, answerable, clear
• Making accurate notes i.e. avoiding plagiarism, appropriate acknowledgment of sources
• link research ideas together
• compare and contrast methods, results or findings
• acknowledge source
• avoid plagiarism
• evaluate research, i.e. strengths and limitations of research methods
• draw conclusions i.e. in relation to research question/hypothesis, makes judgements on evidence/findings, discusses implications
Ways of evaluating research
* assess validity, reliability and generalisability, i.e.trustworthiness of source (i.e. journal articles/books are more trustworthy than media reports)
* strengths or limitations of research methods used
* ethics of the research
* representative samples
Implications of findings
* government policy
areas for further research
* questions that have not been answered
* areas where further evidence is needed
* alternative research methods that could be used
Validity, Reliability and Generalisability
• validity, i.e. did the research methods used measure what they were intending to measure?
• reliability, i.e. how trustworthy is the research? Would the same results be achieved if the research was repeated?
• generalisability, i.e. how relevant is the research to other settings? How representative was the sample used in the research?