Unit 2 Settlements

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Inaccessible Remote Settlements

Rural Push Factors 

- Jobs losses in Agriculture

- Varied employment opportunites 

- Lack of Services 

- Limited Marriage Opportunities 

- Low Average Income

- Social Isolation 

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Inaccessible Remote Settlements

Urban Pull factors 

- More Jobs 

- Varied employment opportunites 

- Potential higher wages

- More social opportunites

- The prospect of training and Higher Education

- Varied Leisure activities

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Inaccessible Remote Settlements

Remote rural areas are experiencing outward migration of younger people to urban areas leading to an ageing rural population 

Case Study: St John's Chapel

Only 4% are 16-24 in the vaillage compared to nationally 12%. 

36% are 60+ compared to nationally 12% 

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Evidence of St John's Chapel Decline

1980 - 160 children in village 

2004 - 38 children in village 

Male unemployment is 17% and 21% of households do not own a car. 

Nearest Secondary school is 14 miles away. 

Nearest Library is 22 miles away 

Local school and bus service has disaapeared. 

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Remote Rural Settlement with High Second Home Owne

Case Study: Helford, Cornwall 

Attract new people to them such as people who have retired or have brought a second home for the weekends. 

Factors which led to Helford: 

- Beautiful location

- Nice warm weather in the Summer

- Near the Coast 

- Quiet and Peacful area 

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Impacts of Second Home Ownership

Households in Helford: 

25% Second homes, only 3% nationally 

Impacts House Prices: 

Average UK 3 Bedroom detached house price - 329,000 pounds 

In Helford - 650,000 pounds 

Nearly Double Uk average Price 

This is due do to demand in area. Meaning Locals now can't afford to live there. 

Local Conflicts - Fishing Industry vs Second home Owners 

Devolpment of new road for fish industry. Second Home Owners don't want an eye sore in the landscape of a major road. 

Few customers for local services due to many being second home owners meaning decline in services. 

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Accessible rural Settlements

Counter Urbanisation - 

The movement of people and economic activity from urban areas to rural settlements. 

Reasons for Counter Urbanisation - 

Push from the Urban area - 

Economic - De-industrialisation in urban areas, less jobs

Houses and Land more expenisve 

Environmental - Lack of green open space 

Noise, Congestion and Pollution 

Social - Stressful 'rat race' mentality 

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Reasons for Counter Urbanisation


Pull to the Rural Area - 

Economic - Jobs increasingly availiable 

Retailling moving out of town 

Lands and houses cheaper 

Services Increasingly avaliable 

Environmental - Fresh air, Peace and quiet 

Less congested environment 

Social - Better quality of life for children 

Opportunities for Outdoor 

Better schools 

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Benefits of Counter Urbanisation

Land Owners sell for high prices 

Increased demand for services 

Better living conditions than urban 

More employment in rural areas 

Newcomers maintain environment 

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Problems of Counter Urbanisation

- Loss of areas for recreation 

- Traffic increase 

- Social tensions between new and old 

- Increase in house prices 

- Loss of services as dormitory settlements develop 

- Loss of tradditional rural character 

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Effects of Counter Urbanisation

Case Study: Framlingham, Suffolk 

Within commuting distance of London 

Population Change 

104% increase from 1981 (2190) to 2011 (4774)

Double the amount of 0-4 year olds 

Larger Elderly Population 

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Changes in Framlingham


New housing built on both Greenfield and Brownfield sites 

Infill and converted barns aswell - 646 new homes

Raising house prices meaning many local residents can't afford to buy a home no longer. 

New Services

Doctors Surgery 

Improved Bus Service

Icreased size in primary and secondary school 

New activities for teens and kids (football club) 

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Changes in Framlingham

Retail - 

Increase in total number of shops 

Growth in Market Stalls 

Change in the type of shops - more higher order

More restaurants, hairdressers and estate Agents 

Industry - 

A modren industrial estate (Ore Trading) with 11 light factories 

Growing number of teleworkers 

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Changes in Framingham

Environment - 

- 65 homes built on derelict factory site 

- But 35 hectares of farmland gone 

- Higher traffic flows due to 'school run' and commuting 

- Increased flooding of the River Ore 

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The Rural Urban Fringe

A rural and recreational zone adjacent to the urban area where there is an expansion and growth of housing, road building, retail parks and industrial estates. 

Demand on the area - Growth of Population means more housing - Government target is 240,000 new houses per year 

Also increasing demand for leisure facilites e.g. golf, sports stadia. 

Demand for Retailing and Ring road development are also reasons why its changing 

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The impacts of changes in the rural-urban fringe



May create jobs e.g. Retail Parks (Trentham Aldi) 

Cheaper Land 

Money for property developers and Land owners 

Social - 

Better Housing 

Cycle ways 

Environmental - 

Nature reserves set up 

Country parks lead to conservation 

Park and ride scheme - reduce congestion and pollution 

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The impacts of changes in the rural-urban fringe


Economic -

Fuel costs for commuting 

Social - 

Trespassing on farms 

Can cause lots of traffic e.g. Shopping centres 

More commuting time

Conflict over potential developers (Trentham) 


Fly tipping 

Unattractive sites 

Motorways destroy countryside 

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