- Ultrasound scan uses a transducer - producing high frequency sound waves.
- Sound waves penetrate through soft tissue.
- Gel is applied to the skin.
- Gel used to help transducer make better contact between transducer & skin.
- Transducer places on skin.
- Transducer requires receiver to detech sound waves.
- Connected to computer - processed the data from transducer.
- Computer creates image.
- Shows abnormalities.
- Low risk to foetus.
- Can be used when X-Rays cannot.
- Provides real time moving image.
- Inexpensive compared to MRI.
- Poor quality & shows less detail.
- cannot penetrate bones - no good for scans on brain.
- Gel cushion is placed over area required treatment.
- Lithotripter produced high intensity sound waves.
- High intensity sound waves bombard object.
- Energy waves observed by object.
- Object shatters.
- Lithotripsy breaksing gallstones - able to pass through bile duct into intestine - be excreted.
- Lithotripsy breaking stones - urinary tract - pass through urine.
- Used for - treating kidney stone, breaking gallstones, treating stones in urinary tract.
- Less invasive than surgery to remove stones.
- Avoids needs of surgery.
- Stones can reoccur.
- Doesn't prevent stones forming.
- Stones could shatter & cause further problems.
- Electromagnetic radiation of short wavelenghts.
- Enables penetration of soft tissue - not bones.
- Machine directs rays at affect area - underneath a photographic plate.
- X-Rays pass through soft tissues - causing a change in film.
- Patient having X-Ray - wear lead apron - covered in lead.
- Medical practitioner - wear lead apron - stands being lead wall.
- Quick & Easy.
- Results obtained quickly.
- Radiation - can cause damage to cells - leading to cancer.
- Contrast medium - used to dye hollow or fluid organs.
- Medium shows up on X-Rays.
- E.g. Barium meals - digestive tract & Iodine - angiograms (heart).
- Quick & easy.
- Results obtained quickly.
- radiation - can cuase damage to cells - leading to cancer.
- Computerised tomography.
- Uses X-Rays - build up an image - slice through body.
- Patient put through tube contain scanner - rotating around body - emitting x-rays pulses.
- Data received - processed using computer software.
- Need to lie still & breath normally.
- Digital image.
- Clear images.
- Can scan areas encased in bone.
- Radiation risk - can cause cancer.
- Large size of equipment.
- Patient moves through cylinder - with electromagnets.
- Causes magnet field in body - aligns all H atons in the body.
- Radio waves pulses knock H atoms back out - causing detectable radio signals.
- Strength of returned signal - determines what type of tissue it came from.
- Tissue containing H atoms - bright white - tissue containing few H atoms - dark.
- 3D image.
- Greater contrast of abnormal cells.
- No harmful radiation.
- Expensive equipment.
- Some patient worry about the process.
- Isotopes of elements that decay quickly.
- Level of radioactivity declines qucikly - not at particular risk.
- Combined with other element - from radioactive versiokn of substance within the body - used to.
- Substances introduced into patient's body - via drip - build up in target organs.
- Number of scanning methods used to pick up radiation emitted from target organs.
- Positron emission tomography.
- Radionuclide introduced - patient placed on a gamma ray camera.
- Receiver picks up emitted readiation from target organs.
- Computer process image - colour image.
- Red & yellow - most radioactivities - normally functioning areas.
- Dark areas - not working normally - restriction of blood flow.
- More effective on the brain.
- Equipment large.
- Expensive chemicals.
- Isotopes emit radiation - leading to cancer.
- Diagnosis of disorders - circulatory system.
- Electrodes places on patient's skin - by skick pads.
- Electrodes attached to chest, wrist & ankles.
- Electrodes linked to machine - recording electrical activity of the heart.
- Electrodes show each contraction.
- Producing an electrocardiogram - PQRST wave pattern.
- Healthy heart - produces normal wave pattern - on moving graph monitor screen.
- Anbromal wave pattern - indicates dsyfunction.
- Trained cardiologist - interprets wave pattern.
- Patient may be aksed to exercise while readings are taken place.
- Smaller equipment.
- Further investigation needed.
- Sample of living tissue - taken from patient.
- Insertion of hollow needle - capture clyinder of tissue.
- Usually from area of abnormality - lumps.
- Different types - punch biopsy (skin discs) - smear test - CVS.
- reduced uncertainty.
- Invasive & painful.
- Used to view inaccessible areas of the body.
- Camera equpped with a light - fibre optic cable.
- Images shown on TV screen.
- Used in conjunction with biopsy.
- Name depends on target area - e.g. bronchoscopy used for lungs - gastroscopy used for stomach.
- Tissues examination with little damage.
- No incision needed.
- Cause distress.
- Urine - caught in pot - tested chemically - dipstick - culturing for infection.
- Blood - sample taken - sent away for analysis - unless sugar test for diabetes.
- Mucuc - sample taken - cultured.
- CFS - central spinal fluid.
- Quick, easy, littel discomfort.
- Wide range of information gathered.
- Invasive with some risk - Amniocentesis & CFS.