-Death Rates fluctuated up until 1740. DR fell, raising again in periods of scarcity and epidemics of illness.
-Birth rates stayed high to compensate for high DRs. Stage 2
-Between 1770 and 1870, infant mortality fell, mainly was a result of improved nutrition.
-1780 onwards, improvements in agriculture helped to provide a reliable food supply for the population.
-From 1800, Industrial revolution led to the move into the towns- Factory owners had to ensure an efficient food supply for the workforce.
-DR increased due to sanitary conditions in the towns.
-Public Health Act 1875 – improved water supply and sewage disposal systems.
-Compulsory education and factory reforms after 1870 made employment of children difficult.
-1870s Annie Besant published pamphlets advocating birth control.
-1906 government took actions to improve the health of mothers, infants and schoolchildren.
-1870 onwards, scientific developments steadily improved ,medical and surgical practice.
-BR fell during the two world wars and the depression of the 1930.
-BRs rose after WW2 because of baby boom.
-Use of oral contraceptives and other contraceptives became widespread after 1960.
-The Abortion Act 1967 legalised abortion in some circumstances. Working women.
-2011 BR falling due to women prolonging pregnancy (average age for a woman having her 1st child – 29) (fertility rate 1.6).
-2011 DR rising due to an ageing population.