UK Upland and Lowland Landscapes


Upland Granite


North Scotland,Ireland and South West England.

Landscape Formation-

  • Batholith = cooled granite
  • rock shrinks as it cools creating vertical cracks
  • Where the cracks are close they erode faster
  • Ice/rivers remove the surface, exposing the Granite tor
  • Pressure release as the rock expands and creates horizontal cracks


Horizontal and vertical cracks; tors; enlarged joints; rounded edges; cutter slopes and broken rocks

Draw diagram showing characteristics

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Lowland Chalk


Kent and South/North downs


  • Millions of years ago chalk formed under warm tropical conditions
  • Plates pushing together forced the chalk layers upwards into a dome 
  • The chalk in the middle of the dome was removed by weathering and erosion to expose the clays underneath


Dips; scarp; escarpment and spring line

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Upland Limestone


North Yorkshire


  • Calcium carbonate from seacreatures was at sealevel
  • Earthquake shifted
  • Ice scaping rock above away


Grybe; stream disapears underground; Cave; Stalacite and stalagmite; clint; limestone pavement;reappearing river

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