The different types of culture
Due to the different definitions of culture there are several types of culture within society. They are as follows;
- Associated with Leavis
- Concerns elite, upper classes. people or families with ascribed famlies
- Small elite and operate a in social closure so that they stay elite
- Associated with art such as opera, balle, clasical music, polo and lacrose
- Argued if it still exists in UK today as people can now buy into high culture
- A reason for questioning HIgh Culture as they are oppisites
- Associated with shallow activities enjoyed by the masses.
- Could be argued it borrows ideas from high culutre and makes it availiable to the masses - such as Golf, Burberry Check and art galleries
- Argued that pop culture is a product of the media - dominated world and that it therefore has a positive effect as it brings people together
Popular Culture Study - Strinati 1995
The media is largely responsible for the creation of Popular culture.
it is the comsumption of material goods that plays a part in popular culture
Through Digital television and mass communication the world has become more consumer orientated.
Popular culture feeds the obsession of designer goods and places a high value on materialism
- Culture enjoyed by a minority group in society
- Still have distinct norms and values making them a sub-section of society
- Examples; Skaters, Emos, Goths, Scientologists, New age Traveller
- May develop in oppositing to authority, Some youth groups and Nwe age Travellers
- Membership of Subculture changes over time meaning sub cultures can be seen to reflect the changing nature of society
- Some people move from Sub cultures whereas others stay in them their whole lives.
- Relates to Culturally-embedded differences within Society
- Society can be diverse in Many ways. Parekh (2006) Set out 3 ways.
1) When members of society have a distinct way of life whilst still serving the dominant culture. Eamples - Gays and lesbians.
2) Some members of society rebel against central principles, rejecting the dominant values. Examples - the environmental group "Reclaim the Streets"
3)Communal diversification, where ethnic groups have a long established communities that add to the dominantway of life. Examples - Bangladeshi communites in London
-The UK is culturally diverse, Class, Gender, ethnicity & seuality
- Cultural divesrity doesn't mean the decline of homogeneity (cultural sameness). A Society can be diverse and still have fundamental norms and values.
- Precise definintion debated. Parekh 2006 sees it similar to cultural diversity. But can be described as ethnic groups living side by side
- Multiculturalism promotes the belief that ethnic groups have the same status and equal rights to preserve their cultural heritage
- Multiculturalism is related to migration patterns
- Debated as to if it is a positive thing or if it encourages separatism
Multiculturalism Study - Barker 2003
- considers a multi cultural society as seeking to celebrate differences
- THis can be seen in the teaching of muli-faith religious education and celebrating different festivals
- Related to the things we consume nd use in society
- Widely accepted the UK is a Consumer Culture
- Based on Economical and cultural factors
- Society portrays a sene of identity through the goods available
- Economic conditions within society are crucial in the creation of a consumer culture
Consumer CUlture Study - Lury 1996
Identified features of a consumer culture
- Availablitiy of a wide range of consumber goods
- Shopping is a leisure activity
- Different form of shopping are available
- Debt is acceptable
- Packaging and promotion of goods is a large scale business
- Process in which events in one part of the world iinfluence elsewhere.
- World has become increasingly interconnected economically - the stock markets are connected, politically - the world leaders ally theselves with eachother, socially - trends and fashion spread, for example fahion in paris spreads to new york and london.
- Nations are no longer individual or isolated, to understand societies we have to look beyond the single country
- Feature of Globalisation
- relates to immigration, travel and media
Global Culture Study - McLuhan 1989
Global culture has resulted in the world becoming "smaller" the idea of a "global village" is used to describe where cultural homogeneity is key.
Americanisation and "McDonaldisation" is used to raise the posibility that heglobal culure is Americanised
Formation of Culture
Factors that Form Culture