Types of Culture and the studies to go with them

The diffrent types of culture and any cases to go with the definitions.

  • Created by: Kathryn
  • Created on: 06-05-12 12:23

The different types of culture

Due to the different definitions of culture there are several types of culture within society. They are as follows;

High Culture

Popular Culture

Cultural Diversity



Consumer Culture

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High Culture

- Associated with Leavis

- Concerns elite, upper classes. people or families with ascribed famlies

- Small elite and operate a in social closure so that they stay elite

- Associated with art such as opera, balle, clasical music, polo and lacrose

- Argued if it still exists in UK today as people can now buy into high culture

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Popular Culture

- A reason for questioning HIgh Culture as they are oppisites

- Associated with shallow activities enjoyed by the masses.

- Could be argued it borrows ideas from high culutre and makes it availiable to the         masses - such as Golf, Burberry Check and art galleries

- Argued that pop culture is a product of the media - dominated world and that it therefore has a positive effect  as it brings people together

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Popular Culture Study - Strinati 1995

Strinati 1995

The media is largely responsible for the creation of Popular culture.

it is the comsumption of material goods that plays a part in popular culture

Through Digital television and mass communication the world has become more consumer orientated.

Popular culture feeds the obsession of designer goods and places a high value on materialism

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- Culture enjoyed by a minority group in society

- Still have distinct norms and values making them a sub-section of society

- Examples; Skaters, Emos, Goths, Scientologists, New age Traveller

- May develop in oppositing to authority, Some youth groups and Nwe age Travellers

- Membership of Subculture changes over time meaning sub cultures can be seen to   reflect the changing nature of society

- Some people move from Sub cultures whereas others stay in them their whole lives.

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Cultural Diversity

- Relates to Culturally-embedded differences within Society

- Society can be diverse in Many ways. Parekh (2006) Set out 3 ways.

1) When members of society have a distinct way of life whilst still serving the dominant culture. Eamples - Gays and lesbians.

2) Some members of society rebel against central principles, rejecting the dominant values. Examples - the environmental group "Reclaim the Streets"

3)Communal diversification, where ethnic groups have a long established communities that add to the dominantway of life. Examples - Bangladeshi communites in London

-The UK is culturally diverse, Class, Gender, ethnicity & seuality

- Cultural divesrity doesn't mean the decline of homogeneity (cultural sameness). A Society can be diverse and still have fundamental norms and values.

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- Precise definintion debated. Parekh 2006 sees it similar to cultural diversity. But can be described as ethnic groups living side by side

- Multiculturalism promotes the belief that ethnic groups have the same status and equal rights to preserve their cultural heritage

- Multiculturalism is related to migration patterns

- Debated as to if it is a positive thing or if it encourages separatism

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Multiculturalism Study - Barker 2003

Barker (2003)

- considers a multi cultural society as seeking to celebrate differences

- THis can be seen in the teaching of muli-faith religious education and celebrating different festivals

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Consumer Culture

- Related to the things we consume nd use in society

- Widely accepted the UK is a Consumer Culture

- Based on Economical and cultural factors

- Society portrays a sene of identity through the goods available

- Economic conditions within society are crucial in the creation of a consumer culture

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Consumer CUlture Study - Lury 1996

Lury (1996)

Identified features of a consumer culture

- Availablitiy of a wide range of consumber goods

- Shopping is a leisure activity

- Different form of shopping are available

- Debt is acceptable

- Packaging and promotion of goods is a large scale business

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Global Culture

- Process in which events in one part of the world iinfluence elsewhere.

- World has become increasingly interconnected economically - the stock markets are connected, politically - the world leaders ally theselves with eachother, socially - trends and fashion spread, for example fahion in paris spreads to new york and london.

- Nations are no longer individual or isolated, to understand societies we have to look beyond the single country

- Feature of Globalisation

- relates to immigration, travel and media

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Global Culture Study - McLuhan 1989

McLuhan (1989)

Global culture has resulted in the world becoming "smaller" the idea of a "global village" is used to describe where cultural homogeneity is key.

Americanisation and "McDonaldisation" is used to raise the posibility that heglobal culure is Americanised

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Formation of Culture

Factors that Form Culture




THe Media



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