Types of experiment

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Types of experiment (Research methods)

4 different types: natural & Quasi experiments and Lab & Field experiments

To identify natural, quasi, lab and field:

- Look at the variable; Can the researcher chnage it?

- Yes, Lab and field experiment

- No, Natural and Quasi experiment

Weaknesses of quasi and natural experiments are that you can't allocate participants

Weaknesses of lab and field epxeriments are that sometiems the experiment is normally lacking in validity and mundane realism.

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Observational techniques (Research methods)

6 different types: Naturalsistic, controlled, overt, covert, participant and non-participant

Participant observations are where the researcher takes part in the experiment whereas in a non-participant observation they do not take part in the experiment.

Observations are DO not FEEL or THINK

Naturalistic takes place in an everyday situation

Advantages: Ecological validity. Disadvantages: Extraneous variables

Controlled takes place under organised observations:

- An advantage of controlled observations is that there is high control but a disadvantage is that it may lack validity.

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Self report techniques

Both questionnaires and interviews may include pre-set questions

Questionnaires are normally a piece of paper with questions on so it can be anonymous. Advantages of questionnaires are that it is easier to compare candidates answers. On the other hand, a disadvantage of questionnaires is that participants may answer the questionnaire in order to portray themselves well (This is also known as social desirability bias)

Interviews are normally face to face and can either have pre-set questions or a general aim. An advantage of interviews is that the questions can be expanded for the interviewee. However, a disadvantage of interviews is there is an inability to expand on answers in a structured interview.


- If closed quesions, draw response boxes

- If open question, end the question with please explain your answer

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