Types of experiment (Research methods)
4 different types: natural & Quasi experiments and Lab & Field experiments
To identify natural, quasi, lab and field:
- Look at the variable; Can the researcher chnage it?
- Yes, Lab and field experiment
- No, Natural and Quasi experiment
Weaknesses of quasi and natural experiments are that you can't allocate participants
Weaknesses of lab and field epxeriments are that sometiems the experiment is normally lacking in validity and mundane realism.
Observational techniques (Research methods)
6 different types: Naturalsistic, controlled, overt, covert, participant and non-participant
Participant observations are where the researcher takes part in the experiment whereas in a non-participant observation they do not take part in the experiment.
Observations are DO not FEEL or THINK
Naturalistic takes place in an everyday situation
Advantages: Ecological validity. Disadvantages: Extraneous variables
Controlled takes place under organised observations:
- An advantage of controlled observations is that there is high control but a disadvantage is that it may lack validity.
Self report techniques
Both questionnaires and interviews may include pre-set questions
Questionnaires are normally a piece of paper with questions on so it can be anonymous. Advantages of questionnaires are that it is easier to compare candidates answers. On the other hand, a disadvantage of questionnaires is that participants may answer the questionnaire in order to portray themselves well (This is also known as social desirability bias)
Interviews are normally face to face and can either have pre-set questions or a general aim. An advantage of interviews is that the questions can be expanded for the interviewee. However, a disadvantage of interviews is there is an inability to expand on answers in a structured interview.
- If closed quesions, draw response boxes
- If open question, end the question with please explain your answer