ALL ABOUT DIABETES

Type 1 Diabetes

Auto-immune response (disease), Immune system attacks beta cells. (Can't produce insulin)

After eating blood gluc conc rises and stays high = death if not treated.

Kidneys can't absorb glucose so some is excreted in urine

Develops (begins) in children and symptoms are quick.

More likely if there is family history of this.

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Type 2 Diabetes

(Cant use insulin or control sugar levels/conc)

Beta cells don't produce enough Insulin or the body cells dont respond to insulin.

Glyco-protein insulin receptors on the surface cell membrane don't work = cells don't take up Glucose = Blood Gluc conc is higher than normal (stays in bloodstream)

Symptoms develop slowly and risk increases with age. Linked to obesity. Can be found in children.

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DIABETES TREATMENT (Type 1)

Insulin therapy (Regular insulin injections OR Insulin pump)

Islet cell transplants, so the beta cells can release insulin

Need to regularly measure their blood gluc conc and have a carefully planned diet

When isulin is given this increases the amount of gluc absorbed = glycogenesis and increases blood gluc conc (forms glycogen)

Too much insulin= HYPOGLYCAEMIA can lead to unconsciousness

Too low insulin= HYPERGLYCAEMIA can lead to " or death

When patients inject themselves = surge of insulin in blood = blood gluc decreases quickly

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TREATMENT FOR TYPE 2 DIABETES

Through lifestyle changes

Eating a balanced diet, regulate carb intake and increase excercise

When diet and excercise isn't enough drugs (medication) are needed. This stimulates insulin production= slows down the rate glucose is absorbed

Examples of medication= Metformin which reduces the amount of glucose absorbed by liver cells. Increases sensitivity of cells to insulin= more glucose taken up.

Sufonylureas (Gliclazide)= Stimulates pancreas to produce more insulin

Thiazolidinediones= Body cells more sensitive to insulin

Insulin therapy can be used in addition to this to control blood gluc conc if medication isn't enough

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INSULIN PRODUCED BY GM BACTERIA

Used to be made from animal pancreas e.g. pig and cattle

To treat Type 1 diabetes

ADVANTAGES:

  • Human insulin made in pure form=less likely allergic reactions, more effective as animal insulin is slightly different to human
  • Can be produced in higher quantities
  • Cheaper production
  • No ethical/religious concerns about using animal products or vegetarians
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USING STEM CELLS TO CURE DIABETES

Inject patient with beta islet cells

Immunosuppresant drugs are used to prevent rejection of these cells. This increases metabolic demand in insulin producing cells

ADVANTAGES:

  • Donars aren't needed; stem cells produce unlimited amount of new beta cells
  • Less likely to be rejected
  • Don't need to inject insulin

DISADVANTAGES:

  • Limited ability to control growth & diffrentiation; could cause cancer/tumours due to uncontrollable cell growth
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SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES

  • Tiredness= Glucose not broken down in respiration=less energy made
  • Weight loss= Cant take up Glucose; uses protein and fats insteas (protein is taken from muscles= muscle wastage & breakdown)
  • Excessive Urination (Polyuria)= Kidneys excrete glucose which decreases water, so more water is flushed out (osmosis)
  • Excessive thirst (Polydipsia)= As water is flushed out, more water is needed to replace the water lost
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