Types Of Bonds

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Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding is the attraction between oppositely charged ions.

An ion is a substance that has lost or gained electrons to get a full outershell of electrons. They are charged and either have a positive or negative charge.

Properties of Ionic Compounds:

  • High melting and boiling point
  • There are very strong bonds

Those with 1,2,3 electrons in the outershell (group 1,2,3) will lose electrons to get a full outershell. This will create positive ions. Those with 5,6,7 electrons in the outershell (group 5,6,7) will gain electrons to get a full outershell. This will create negative ions.


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Covalent Bonds

Covalent bonding is where 2 or more non-metals share their electrons.

Properties of Simple Covalent Compounds:

  • Low melting and boilling point
  • Often gas at room temperature

Properties of Giant Covalent Compounds:

  • High melting and boiling point
  • Hard and strong


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Metallic Bonds

In a metal, the atoms lose several of their outer electrons which drift around between the meatl ions as free electrons.

The large numbers of free electrons makes all metals good conductors of electricity and heat.


The regular structure means that the layers of atoms can fairly slide over each other without breaking the bonds and so metals are malleable.

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Intermolecular Forces

Intermolecular forces are an attraction between molecules. Polymers are a good example of this.

Polymers are very large molecules made when 100's of monomers join together to form a long chain. Polymers have strong intramolecular bonds (covalent bonds) but the chains are held together by weak intermolecular forces. This makes the polymer have a low melting point and allows it to stretch.

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