Turning to Crime

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Farrington- Disrupted Families

Wilkstrom and Tafel - Types of Offenders

sutherland- Association

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  • The influence of offending family familys and criminal behaviour
  • 411 boys from 6 state schools
  • Longitudinal study with interviews
  • If criminal career started at 13 years old then 91% reconviction rate
  •  Farringtion highligted that eary prevention is important to reduce reconviction rate and criminal careers
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Wilstrom and Tafel

  • Reseaching into why children turn to crime
  • Nearly 2000 year 10 students, roughly 15 years old
  • All completed a questionnaire and had criminal records reviewed
  • The results showed that there was three types of offenders -

    1) Prospensity Induced

    2)Situationally Limited

    3)Lifestyle dependent

  • The influcing factors were family, social bonds, social class and peers
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  • 9 theories of differential assosiation,
  • Examples of the theores are - 
  • criminal behaviour is learnt
  • criminal behaviour occurs in personal groups
  • behaviour can vary from person to person
  • devience occurs when people defy a certain social situation 
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Yochelson and Somenow - Criminal thinking patterns

Kohlberg - Moral Development

Gudjohnsson and Bownes - Blame Attribution (social cognition) 

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Yochelson and Somenow

  • Make up of the criminal personality
  •  255 offenders, all male, various backgrounds
  • All interviewed over 14 years
  • 52 criminal thinking patterns discovered
  • Criminals are restless, lack empathy and are under no obligation to anyone 
  • No control group , so unknown if these are criminal or 'normal' 
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  • Moral develpoment,Based on the work of piaget
  • 55 boys fomr chicago
  • Interviews with ten dilemmas being presented in which the child had to solve
    Interviews were 2 hours
  •  Younger children were in stages 1 -2 
  • Older boys in stages 3-4
  • There was no evidence of stage 6 so concluded that it must notbe present but evidence in stage 5.
  • Was researcged in USA, UK, mexico and Turkey 
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Gudjohnsson and Bownes

  • Blame Attribution and offenders
  • Examining the relationship between offence and attribution
  • 80 ofenders, Northern Ireland
    20 violence,
    40 sexual and
    20 theft
  • All were set against the 42 item blame attribution inventory
  • Sexual offences had the highest level of remorse being shown(12%)
  • Violent offences had the highest level of blame on others (8%)
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Raine - Brain Dysfunction

Brunner - Genes and Seritonin

Daly and Wilson - Gender and Life Expectency 

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  • understanding anti-social aggressive behavour in children
  • Review article on research on brain functioning with brain imagery
  • A low resting heart rate is found in impulsive individuals and a predictor of anti-social behaviour 
  • The pre-fontal lobes have lower activity in individuals who seek excitement
  • That early prevention can reverse the biological definciencys  
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Daly and Wilson

  • The relation between homicide rates and life expectency
  • In chicago and Detroit as lower life expetency in young men
  • content anaylsis of the police departments records
  • Can be linked to teh evolutionary theory that young men, with high levels of competition will be more likely to display risky bhaviour to atrract attention
  • Females offences were mainly in self-defence nto risky behaviour linking in with the theory
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  • Netherlands
  • 5 males from a family with an abnormal gene , showed aggresive and irritable behaviour
  • The males had to give urine samples over a period of 24 hours
  • The samples showed an increase in the hormone MAO due to an extra chromosone, which is linked to agression
  • MAO reduces the hormone seritonin from being produced, seritonin is what keeps a person calm
  • This is evidence to support the theory that biology caues criminal behaviour 
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