Farringinton (1996) - Problem Familes
Context: Taking nuture approach into why people turn to crime
Aim: Do problem familes produce problem children?
Sample: 411 boys predominantly white from the working class in East London across 6 state schools aged 8/9 years (born in 1953/1954)
Procedure: Longitudinal survey, Data gathered via self-report at age 48 and searches of criminal records of participants and close biological relations
Results: Problem families do produce problem children. The number of offences and offenders peaked at age 17. Those who started a criminal career at 10-13 were all nearly reconvicted once (91%), and most shared common risk factors e.g. a convicted parent, deliquent sibilings, a young mother, a large family etc.
Sutherland (1934) - Differential Association Theory
1. Criminal behaviour is learned not inherited.
2. Criminal behaviour is learned through communication (non-verbal/verbal)
3. Learning criminal behaviour occurs within intimate groups (family, close friends)
4. The learning includes the technqiues of committing the crime (lock-picking)
5. The specific direction of motives depends on views of the law
6. In theory interaction with criminals/criminal behaviour can be quantified
7. Learning criminal behaviour is learning in the same way as other behaviours (classical conditioning, operate conditioning and social learning theory)
Wikstrom (2000) - Poverty and Disadvantaged Areas
Aim: To find out what extent does poverty and social disadvantage contribute to criminal behaviour
Sample: Appox. 2000 Year 10 pupils (aged 14-15)
Findings: There are 3 groups of people: 'The Bad Egg' a group more dominiant on the individuals within (high-risk) - 'Mixing with the wrong crowd' less risk however prone to peer pressure - 'Wrong place at wrong time' situational problems are reasons for crime rather than the personality.
Conclusion: Gives insight into young offenders from the nurture perspective, and though reductionist may aid in reducing the number of young offenders and offences committed by younger people.