Turning Points in the history of Medicine

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Hippocrates develops: theory of the Four Humours -

Blood, Phlegm, Yellow Bile, Black Bile. Ideas about natural causes of diseases are now as important and common as supernatural.

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Hippocrates develops: Clinical Observation - 5th/4

Observing patient and taking notes on symptoms. Doctors have rules to follow and spread their methods.

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Vesalius makes detailed anatomical drawings - 1530

Proved Galen was wrong and challenged Greek and Roman ideas by dissection of humans.

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Paré tries out new surgical methods - 1530 - 1560

New methods of surgery, written in books so that the ideas spread. Ideas didn't work very effectively until the development of antiseptic.

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Harvey studies the heart - 1620 - 1650

Challenged Greek and Roman ideas; proved by experiments.

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Smallpox Vaccination - 1790

Prevention of the infectious disease smallpox. Leads to vacccination 

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Pasteur develops germ theory - 1860

Once the link between germs and disease is proved and understood, developments 7-12 (cards) become possible

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Simpson develops anaesthetics - 1840

More complex operations were possible.

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Lister develops effective anaesthetics - 1860

Antiseptics mean that operations are now a safe way to treat illnesses and injury rather than a last resort.

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Nightinglae improves hospitals and nursing practic

Clean hospitals mean that people who visit hospital do not die.

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Public Health Act 1875

Conditions in towns are cleaner which leads to the end of disease, and later on to improvements in living conditons - housing etc.

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Ehrlich creates the first magic bullet - 1911

Cure for syphilis. Leads to chemical cures for other diseases.

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Discovery of penicillin - 1928

A cure for infectious diseases developed most infectious diseases are now treatable with antibiotics.

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