Tudor Historiography

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Whiggish History

Focus on interactions with separate continent

Cultural History

Importance of European culture to aesthetics, taste and fashion


Interaction and assimilation with continent rather than stringent focus on 'otherness'

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Ralph Griffiths

A "series of occasions"

Ronald G. Asch

"its own specific culture"

David Starkey

By 1509 the court served the personal service of the king e.g. Grooms of Chamber

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David Starkey - Privy Chamber

There were "three main phases: first decline from the centre of the royal establishment to an adjunct of Protector Somerset's household; second revival after 1549 and gradual re-emergence as a focus for political life; third, remodelling after 1553 to suit the peculiar requirements of a woman whom fate had paed at the head of a society dominated by men"

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Edward VI's Privy Chamber

M.L. Bush

"became, inevitably, more formalised in its procedure and larger in its membership"


Somerset virtually abandoned it and dispatched king's business in his own household

"Until 12 March 1547 Edward VI's council consisted of the sixteen exectuors of Henry VIII's last will and one other non-executor" 

From then until 13 October 1549, it consisted of twenty one members selected by the Duke of Somerset

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Elizabeth I

Green (1874)

Elizabeth presented as a cool and skilful politician, cautious and moderate policies, restored national unity, set England on path to supremacy.

Larissa J. Taylor-Smither

Freudian psychoanalytical model = Oedipal complex

John Guy

Two reigns

Allison Heish (1980) (Feminist)

She's a token woman accepting "male notions of how the world was or should be organised"

Susan Bassnett (1988) (Feminist)

She was a symbol of active female assertiveness

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J.A. Froude

Elizabeth was dependent on him

J.E. Neale (Historians of Second Elizabethan Age agree)

Reduced him to the secretary of a brilliant Queen

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Elizabethan Papists


Elimination of medieval Catholicism

1578 - Year Zero


Construction of Catholic identity




Marian Restoration lay foundation for Catholic recusancy 

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Jesuit Missions


The mission of Jesuit missions was political, not pastoral - aimed to overthrow Elizabeth


Strengthen faiths of Catholics

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Christopher Haigh

Successive Reformations

Norman Jones

Kaleidoscope of parallel Reformations

Ethan Shagan

Dynamic process of engagement between government and people, collaboration, not compliance

Christopher Marsh

"compliance conundrum"

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International Influences of English Reformation

Alec Ryrie

Early flourish but strang death of Lutherism

Revisionist - opening of archives in 1960s


Gradual shift towards Calvinism and Swiss Reformation

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Impact of Lollardy (Wyclif)

A.F. Pollard/A.G. Dickens

Coherent body of ideas providing theological inspiration, practical seedbed for Reformation

Eamon Duffy/Richard Rex

Loose, disparate and relatively insignificant

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Tudor Ireland


Transatlantic phenomemon of English colonisation

Hiram Morgan

"There is nothing colonial about any of these activities: they are all recognizably European"

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