Focus on interactions with separate continent
Importance of European culture to aesthetics, taste and fashion
Interaction and assimilation with continent rather than stringent focus on 'otherness'
A "series of occasions"
Ronald G. Asch
"its own specific culture"
By 1509 the court served the personal service of the king e.g. Grooms of Chamber
David Starkey - Privy Chamber
There were "three main phases: first decline from the centre of the royal establishment to an adjunct of Protector Somerset's household; second revival after 1549 and gradual re-emergence as a focus for political life; third, remodelling after 1553 to suit the peculiar requirements of a woman whom fate had paed at the head of a society dominated by men"
Edward VI's Privy Chamber
"became, inevitably, more formalised in its procedure and larger in its membership"
Somerset virtually abandoned it and dispatched king's business in his own household
"Until 12 March 1547 Edward VI's council consisted of the sixteen exectuors of Henry VIII's last will and one other non-executor"
From then until 13 October 1549, it consisted of twenty one members selected by the Duke of Somerset
Elizabeth presented as a cool and skilful politician, cautious and moderate policies, restored national unity, set England on path to supremacy.
Larissa J. Taylor-Smither
Freudian psychoanalytical model = Oedipal complex
Allison Heish (1980) (Feminist)
She's a token woman accepting "male notions of how the world was or should be organised"
Susan Bassnett (1988) (Feminist)
She was a symbol of active female assertiveness
Elizabeth was dependent on him
J.E. Neale (Historians of Second Elizabethan Age agree)
Reduced him to the secretary of a brilliant Queen
Elimination of medieval Catholicism
1578 - Year Zero
Construction of Catholic identity
Marian Restoration lay foundation for Catholic recusancy
The mission of Jesuit missions was political, not pastoral - aimed to overthrow Elizabeth
Strengthen faiths of Catholics
Kaleidoscope of parallel Reformations
Dynamic process of engagement between government and people, collaboration, not compliance
International Influences of English Reformation
Early flourish but strang death of Lutherism
Revisionist - opening of archives in 1960s
Gradual shift towards Calvinism and Swiss Reformation
Impact of Lollardy (Wyclif)
A.F. Pollard/A.G. Dickens
Coherent body of ideas providing theological inspiration, practical seedbed for Reformation
Eamon Duffy/Richard Rex
Loose, disparate and relatively insignificant
Transatlantic phenomemon of English colonisation
"There is nothing colonial about any of these activities: they are all recognizably European"