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- Created on: 10-10-19 18:53
August 1485: Battle of Bosworth
Henry engaged in the battle with Richard III of England, the last Yorkist and Plantagenet king of England. He was aided by Sir William Stanley, who changed sides once he realised who the winner would be. Henry had a claim to the throne via his mother, but had been in exile in Brittany for 14 years. His victory won his the throne but the claim through war wasn't as strong as someone who was directly in line to the throne and Henrys bloodline was weak already.
He dated his reign from the 21st of August 1485, a day before his victory at Bosworth; this allowed him to label Richards supporters as traitors and punish them accordingly. He was coronated in October 1485, before his first parliament in November of the same year, making sure that people could not say he had gained the throne through the government. Similarly, he married Elizabeth of York in January 1486, uniting the two warring families and officially ending the Wars of the Roses. By marrying her after his coronation he couold ensure people also didnt say he was using her to strengthen his claim. Their first child was born Arthur in September 1486
1485: Navigation Acts
The first of two Navigation Acts, continued in 1489, encouraged English shipping but forbade products being loaded onto foreign ships. It aimied to break the control of the dominating Hanseatic League. He aimed to maximise the amount of English exports and increase the number of English ships passing through ports. Eventually, by 1509, English merchants were shipping more cloth abroad than the combined exports of the Hanseastic League.
He faced retailiation from these Acts, especially the 1489 one, and one of the aims of the Treaty of Medina Del Campo was to end Spanish discontent
1486: Lovell Rebellion
Lord Lovell and the Staffords raised a rebellion is support of Richard III. This was not particularly threathening as it was dealt with quickly, although Lovell escaped, Humphrey Stafford was executed and Thomas Stafford was pardoned
1487: Lambert Simnel and French invasion of Britta
In 1487, a young boy was passed off as the Earl of Warwick, one of the princes in the tower, by his priest. He was taken to Ireland and was welocmed with gracious support- he was crowned king of Dublin, and gainied support from Margaret of Burgandy. They landed in England and the Battle of Stoke Field occurred, however it was defeated and was the final end to the War of the Roses. Although they received foreign support, there was little support within England for another pretender after the stability Henry had installed. Young Simnel was made a kitchen turnspit and given a second chance, his priest Symonds was imprisoned but allowed to remain alive. This demonstrated how fair Henry was willing to be
In 1487, France also invaded Brittany. Brittany was English territory in France at the time and this began a negative relationship
1489: Yorkshire Rebellion and the Treaty of Medina
The rebellion was sparked off by resentment of taxes granted by parliament in order to find Britain winning back Brittany which had been lost that year. This is notorious for the murder of the Earl of Northumberland; however it was easily repressed and a new Earl was appointed with no further issues.
The 1489 Treaty secured strong relations with Spain. Both countries agreed to protect one another from threats to their throne, including support should either of them get into war with France, as well as ensuring trading betwen the two. Crucially it also included a marriage agreement between Arthur, Henry's young son, and Ferdinand King of Spains daughter, Katherine of Aragon. The marriage between the two took place in 1501, although Arthur died in 1502, 5 months after the marriage. In terms of trade, it set customs rates low for Spain and England and offered New World trading opportunities, giving England favourable trade
1491-1499: Perkin Warbeck arrives in England
In 1491, a French pretender to the throne Perkin Warbeck claimed to be Richard of York, a prince in the tower. He first became a problem in 1491 when he gained support from Ireland, France, Burgandy (which started the 1493 trade embargo) and the Holy Roman Empire. He moved from Paris in France, to Flanders in Burgandy, to The Holy Roman Empire. His attempt to land in Kent went disasterously, and led to him fleeing to Ireland, and then Scotland in 1495, where he gained support from James IV. When Henry ofered his daughters hand in marriage to James, Warbeck knew his time was up. His final invasion in Exeter went badly and he was persuaded to give himself up. He was imprisoned in 1497, but after an escape attempt in 1498 he was hanged for treason in 1499.
1492: Treaty of Etaples
In 1492, England and France settled their differences with the Treaty of Etaples. This ensured neither country would support a threat towards the other, meaning the threat of being taken from the throne was reduced for a paranoid Henry. Furthermore, the French would provide an annual pension of 50,000. Trade wise, it encouraged commercial relations and lowered duties charged on English goods at French ports. The effect of this was not evident until 1497, when English merchants enjoyed unrestricted trade with the French.This treaty helped with dynastic security and the economy
1496: Intercursus Magnus
In 1493, there had been a trade embargo between Burgandy and England over Burgandy supporting Perkin Warbeck; to ensure his own national security, Henry had had to cut off trade routes through Burgandy, making English merchnats to trade through Calais rather than through the Netherlands. The 1496 Intercursus Magnus ended this trade embargo; it ensured both countries vital trade routes with one another were secure by allowing trade exports to go through anywhere iin Bburgandy apart from Flanders without having to pay taxes for customs.
1497: The Cornish Rebellion and Treaty of Ayton
In 1497, Henry faced social upheaval once again pover resentment of taxation required for a campaign against Scotland. 15,000 rebels marched towards London but only made it to Blackheath. This vast number of members caused great concern. Henry had to withdraw support from the Scottish border to end the rebellion. The bulk of the rebellion were treated leniently, however the rebellion as a whole prompted Henry to improve Anglo-Scottish relations and made his cautious about entering into foreign conflict.
The rebellion led to the Treaty of Ayton with Scotland in the same year, bringing about peace following the support James had showed Warbeck in 1495. A Treaty of Perpetual Peace followed in 1502, which agreed to end warfare between Scotland and England, and also agreed marriage between James IV and Margaret, Henry's daughter. The marriage took place in 1503
John Cabot also discovered Newfoundland and reported about extensive fishing resources
1506: Intercursus Malus and Treaty of Windsor
The Treaty of Windsor was signed in 1506 also. This was made possible as Philip and Juana of Burgandy were forced to find shelter on their way to Spain when their ship was wrecked. Henry used it as an opportunity for an alliance. The Intercursus Malus was agreed upon, a trade agreement following on from the Magnus, which was diasadvantagous to the Netherlands, as well as the agreement that they would surrender Edmund De La Pole, who had been involved in the De La Pole brothers plot of 1501. Henry also agreed to name Philip and Juana as the rulers of Castile. The treaty restored relations between England and Burgandy and strengthened the couples claim to the throne. This decision proved disasterous for Henry as Philip died soon after arriving in Castile and Ferdinand was able to regain control. This made Hnery diplomatically isolated and relations with Spain worsened; Ferdinand refused to let Prince Henry marry Catherine
1508: The League of Cambrai
What was originally supposed to be an anti-spanish league against the French between England, Burgandy and Castile, turned into the League of Cambrai against Venice between the Papacy, France, The Holy Roman Empire and Spain. Henry was excluded but it did not threathen his interests, in fact it may have helped the transition to a new king as it turned European attention away from England.
1509: Death of Henry
In 1509, Henry VII died, leaving Henry VIII to rule the country