Tsunami- case study (boxing day)

Tsunami boxing day fact file,primary and secondary effects, including short-term and long-term responses.

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Tsunami-fact file

An Earthquake caused a tsunami in the Indian ocean in 2004

  • 26th december 2004- an earthquake off the west coast of the island in Sumatra measuring around 9.1 on the richter scale.
  • tsunami- plate which was moving down in the mantle cracked and opened very quickly, which caused a lot of water to be displaced, triggering a tsunami with waves up to 30m high.


  • The Indo-Australian Plate subducted beneath the Eurasian Plate just off the North-West coast of Indonesia.
  • The indian ocean tsunami was one of the most destructive natural disasters that had ever happened, affecting most countries bordering the Indian Ocean, e.g Indonesia,Thailand,India and Sri Lanka were effected
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The effects of the tsunami

Primary Effects: 

  • 230,000 killed ( many are still missing)
  • 650,000 people injured.
  • Public buildings including schools and hospitals were wiped out.
  • 1,500 settlements completely wiped out.
  • Large areas of Eastern coast of India swamped.
  • Infrastructure severely damaged.

Secondary Effects:

  • disease spread quickly as people live close together in temporary shelters with poor sanitation
  • rotting corpses attract disease
  • 2,000,000 made homeless.
  • 5,000,000 - 6,000,000 people needed emergency food, water and medical supplies.
  • Tourism industry suffered heavily because of the destruction and people were afraid to go there-economic effect
  • Large amounts of environmental damage occurred because the salt from the sea water meant that plants can't grow in many areas.
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Short-term and Long-term response


  • hundreds and millions of pounds were pledged by foriegn governments,charities and individuals and businesses to give survivors acess to food, water,shelter and medical attention.
  • Foriegn countries- sent ships,planes,soldiers and teams of specialists to help rescue people, distribute food and water and begin clearing up

Long-term responses:

  • Billions of pounds pledged to help re-build infrastructure of countries affected.
  • programmes have been set up to rebuild houses and help people to get back to work
  • A tsunami warning system has been set up in place in the Indian Ocean.
  • Disaster managment plans have been set up in the place of some countries. volunteers have been trained so that local people know what to do when a tsunami occurs.
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