Tsar Nicholas II 1894-1905

  • Civil Unrest (AKA Bloody Sunday)
  • Tsars personality weaknesses
  • Economy - poverty & lack of people power
  • Russo-Japanese war
  • Problems before Nicholas II which influenced time during his reign
  • Opposition (Liberals later to become Octoberists and Kadets and Social Democrats later to become Bolsheviks and Mensheviks) 

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CIVIL UNREST - BLOODY SUNDAY

CIVIL UNREST EXAMPLES:

1905 - Bloody Sunday -

Demonstrators made up of workers and lead by Father Georgi Gapon marched to the Winter Palace in order to present the Tsar with a petition fully signed to emphasise the feelings against the Russo-Japanese war, long working hours, poor wages for the workers and more people power.

However - Tsar Nicholas was not in and as his palace guards panicked they shot and killed 200 of the demonstrators. This was a huge scandal - Tsar became swiftly unpopular.

STRIKES: 

Strikes occoured frequently before Nicholas' reign and during incredibly often. Too often.

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TSARS PERSONALITY WEAKNESSES

TSARS PERSONALITY WEAKNESSES:

  • He was Highly incapable of doing the job alone - his wife did all of the important jobs for him. 
  • He Mistrusted the majority of his ministers.
  • He had no self confidence.
  • When he discovered he was Tsar he burst into tears and offered the position to his brother who declined as he knew he was uncapable of ruling. 
  • He made quick and not thought through decisions.
  •  It was said that he would be incapable of even running the local post office.

However -

  • He was incredibly patriotic.
  • He recognised his job was appointed by God and so accepted it is his duty.
  • He always attempted to be a better leader for his country and making them like him.
  • He was the most intelligent of the Tsars ever.




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ECONOMY - POVERTY AND LACK OF PEOPLE POWER.

ECONOMIC PROBLEMS: Peasents:

  • 80% of the population were peasents who tended to be farmers.
  • Land for peasents was incredibly expensive and not sufficiant enough for crops.
  • They consisted to be in constant poverty.
  • No people power.

Workers: 

  • Low wages
  • Long working hours
  • No people power
  • Poor working environments

witte - current minister of finance, made peasents pay taxes in order to improve industry as he wanted to expand it.

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RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR

RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR 1904:

  • Battle of Mukden - Russia surrendered and signed the Portsmouth Peace Treaty
  • Battle of Tsushima - 20 Russian Ships sank, 5 captured and 4 escaped.
  • Tsar expected the Japanese to be inferior "little yellow monkeys" but was horribly wrong.
  • The only reason for the Tsar going to war with Japan was to obtain Manchuria to extend the Russian Empire to make the people of Russia like him more. 
  • Overall the war was a pathetic failure.


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PROBLEMS BEFORE TSAR NICHOLAS

PROBLEMS BEFORE 1894:

  • Limited Industrial growth
  • Backward economy
  • 80% Peasent population
  • Large mortgage repayments
  • Not enough productive land
  • No parliment
  • Government Censorship 
  • Judges were sympathetic towards Liberals and so were removed
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OPPOSITION

TSAR OPPOSITION:

  • Liberals - which later split into the Kadets and Octoberists
  • Social Revolutionaries - which split in 1903 into the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks
  • The People (civil unrest) 
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