The Treaty of Versailles was signed in June 1919
1. The Versailles Treaty dealt with Germany, but the other defeated countries made separate treaties.
2. Germany lost a lot of land-
- Alsace Lorraine.
- The Rhineland was demilitarised- Germany wasn't allowed to have troops there since it was close enough to invade France and Belgium from.
3. There were new countries set up. They were artificial countries with many nationalities and were therefore very unstable.
The Results of the Versailles Treaty were Severe
1. Germany had to take the blame for the War- the War- Guilt Clause.
2. Germany's armed forces were reduced to 100,000 men, only volunteers, without armoured vehicles, aircraft, or submarines, and only 6 warships.
3. German troops weren't allowed in the Rhineland- the area was demilitarised.
4. Germany was forced to pay £6, 600 million in reparations- payments for the damage caused. The amount was decided in 1921 but was changed later. It would have taken Germany until the 1980's to pay.
5. Germany lost its Empire- areas around the world that used to belong to Germany were now called Mandates, and they were going to be run by...
6. ...The League of Nations which was set up to keep world peace.
Reactions to the Treaty
Some people said the Treaty was Fair
1. The War had caused so much death and damage.
2. Germany had to be stopped from doing it again.
3. People in France and Britain wanted revenge- politicians listened to them so that they could stay in power.
Others said the Treaty was too Harsh
1. The Treaty was unfair on Germany- the punishment was too severe.
2. The Germans were left weak and resentful- this could lead to anger and cause future trouble, like another War.
3. The Treaty wouldn't help rebuild European trade and wealth- Germany couldn't afford the reparations, and many of the new countries were poor.
4. The Peacemakers faced problems and pressure from the people at home.
The Germans Resented the Treaty
- Could not afford reparations
- Los industrial areas and could not rebuild
- Did not accept defeat
- Lost pride without armed forces
- Saw other countries weren't disarming
- Didn't accept guilt for starting the war
- Suffering economic crisis
- Lost colonies
- Many Germans now living under foreign rule in 'new countries'
Problems building up... 1. Europe couldn't recover properly while countries like Germany were poor.
2. Self determination would be difficult in new countries like Poland and Czechoslovakia where many people from different nationalities had been thrown together as an artificial country.
3. Germany resentment would lead to trouble in the future.
4. Without Germany, Russia or USA in the League of Nations, it'd be hard to keep the peace.