Treaty of Versailles

treaty of versailles

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  • Created by: emma
  • Created on: 29-05-12 10:34

Treaty of Versailles

Reparations - £6600 million

Navy Downsized - No submarines, 6 warships

Rhineland demilitarised - 'buffer zone' to keep France safe from Germany

War guilt clause- Germany accepted blame for starting ww1

Army downsized- 100,000

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Six Terms of the Treaty of Versailles [memory word

Guilt

clause 231- Germany accepted blame ‘for causing all the loss and damage’ of the war.

Army (5 things)

army: 100,000

no submarines

no aeroplanes

6 battleships

Rhineland de-militarised

Reparations

£6,600 million – in instalments, until 1984).

Germany lost land (8 things)

Alsace-Lorraine to France

Saar to France (15 years)

Malmedy to Belgium

North Schleswig to Denmark

West Prussia and Upper Silesia to Poland

Danzig a ‘free city’

Memel to Lithuania

German colonies became ‘mandates’ of the League of Nations.

League of Nations

set up

Extra points (2 things)

forbade Anschluss

Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania independent states.

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How the Germans Felt [memory word: U GARGLER]

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Unfairly treated (3 things)

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no part in the Conference talks

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forced to sign

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few of 14 Points in the Treaty.

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Guilt

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‘Such a confession in my mouth would be a lie’, said Count Brockdorff-Rantzau.

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Armed forces

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meant Germany could not defend itself against even small countries (the Dungervolker - Dung people).

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Reparations

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starved German children.

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Germany lost territory (3 things)

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a humiliation

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contrary to self-determination

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made Germany poorer - took farm land (W Prussia) and industrial land (Saar).

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League of Nations (2 things)

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an insult

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meant that Germany could not defend itself in the League of Nations.

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Extra

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forbidding Anschluss was against the principle of self-determination.

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Results (2 things)

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riots in Berlin/the Deutsche Zeitung attacked ‘the disgraceful treaty’

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Kapp Putsch (1920) to try to overturn the Treaty.

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aims of big three

blamed Germany = punishment/ ‘hard justice’

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angry = revenge.

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wanted to ’make Germany pay’ for the Damage/

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threatened = wanted independent Rhineland/ get Alsace-Lorraine/

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peace = wanted Germany weak and crippled .

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14 Points

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a better world ‘safe for democracy’

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fair peace

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self-determination

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International Co-operation (League of Nations)

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David Lloyd George, Prime Minister of Britain (5 things)

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compromise

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punish & make Germany pay, but not revenge like France

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protect British Empire

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trade

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peace: did not want to create anger in Germany which would lead to war in the future.

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Why was the Treaty of Versailles more important? [

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Big Three negotiated Versailles - other treaties designed by officials.

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Outlined principles (self-determination/Guilt/Army reduced/Reparations/loss of land) - other treaties simply applied them.

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League of Nations was set up by Versailles.

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Major Powers were involved: how Britain and France dealt with Germany; not scared of Austria or Turkey.

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Afterwards, Versailles led to Hitler and World War II

 

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The Four Other Treaties of 1919–20 [memory word: S

Saint Germain (with Austria, 1919), in which Austria (4 things):

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had to give land to Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, and Italy

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was allowed only a volunteer force of 30,000 men and no navy

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was forbidden to unite with Germany (Article 88).

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had to pay reparations.

Neuilly (with Bulgaria, 1919), in which Bulgaria (3 things):

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had to give land to Yugoslavia and Greece

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was allowed an army of only 20,000 men

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had to pay reparations.

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Trianon (with Hungary, 1920), in which Hungary (3 things):

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had to give land to Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia

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was allowed an army of only 35,000

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had to pay reparations.

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Sèvres (with Turkey, 1920) dismantled the Turkish Empire (7 things):

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Self-determination (= the right to rule yourself)

Problems [memory word: APES]

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Areas are sometimes very mixed racially

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Physical frontiers are not the same as racial areas

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Economic areas are not the same as racial areas

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Suspicion: Germans not allowed self-determination

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Successes [memory word: NAME]

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(Poland, Finland, Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)

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Alsace-Lorraine given to France

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Minorities: countries had treat minorities fairly

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Elections (plebiscites) in 3 places:

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Schleswig, Upper Silesia and the Saar.

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Failures [memory word: GAMES]

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Germans in Sudetenland to Czechoslovakia

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Anschluss forbidden

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Minorities existed

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Empires stayed

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Specific violations:

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