Treatments for Abnormlities

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Systematic desensitisation.

This is used for the BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH.

The aim is to extinguish an undersirable behaviour which is fear by replacing it with a more desirable beahviour, relaxation. Both fear and relaxation can't happen at the same time.

Step 1 - Relaxation.

The therapist will teahc the client how to relax themself as it is required in each stage.

Step 2 - Hierarchy.

Client works through a hierarchy of fear from the least frightening to the most frightening. For example, having a spider covered up in a box away from the person to the person holding a spider in their hand.

Step 3 - Reciprocal Inhabition.

As you can't be both in fear and relaxed, this stage proves this and aims to wipe out the fear altogether.

Step 4 - Cured When.

This stage tells the client they are cured when  they feel relaxed when present at the top of the hierarchy.

NOTE - The therapist will aim to get the client to have situations in vivo (real life) and in vitro (imagination)

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Systematic desensitalisation evaluation.

Evaluational Points.

Effectiveness -McGrath found 75% of patients were fully cured.

Relies on imagination of the indivdual.

There may be quicker alternatives - such as flooding which takes the patient to the top of the hierarchy straight away.

Individual may substitue one fear for another.

Appropriateness - Can be used for people with learning disbailites.

Time and effort is required.

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REBT for the Cognitve Approach.

REBT stands for Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy and is based on the ABC Model by Ellis.

There are five stages:

1. Develop a good relationship with the therapist to create a bond of trust.

2. Identifying negative thoughts and keeping a diary of them.

3. Reviewing the diary and challenging any thoughts, no matter how irrelevant the client thinks they are.

4. Client does reality testing.

5. Irrational thoughts then become rational.

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Evaluation of REBT.

Evaluational Points.

- Suitable for treating a wide range of mental disorders.

- Gives the indivdual responsibilty for their treatment.

- Indivdual can become dependant on the therapist.

- Evidence to support CBT use for depression.

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- To analyse the mind

- Not just using one technique but a body which compliment each other.

- Called the 'talking therapy'

- To make the unconcious concious.

Free Association.

In this therpay, the therapist encourages the client to talk about anything no matter how irrelevant the client may think a thought is. The therapist would analyse their talks and try to detect any unconcious traumas and conflicts in the unconcious. The therapist will interpret the clients words and then tell the client who can correct, reject or add further thought and feelings. Over time, the patient will draw associations between many trains of speech that the client has.

Dream Analysis.

This is a therapy in which the therapist asks the client to tell them about dreams so they can interpret their meaning as Freud said dreams are full of symbols for the unconcious mind. By analysing the dreams, the the therapist will help the client to understand their unconcious motives, which according to Freud, all dreams have a sexual content.

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Evaluation of Psychoanalysis.


Long time to get any results.

Theoretical limitations.

Repressed memories can be false memories.

Ethical issues.

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