Treatment of Unipolar Depression

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Mark Scheme


·         Description of two distinct treatments for schizophrenia

·         Description of studies relevant to the description of the therapies


·         Evaluation of the general approach in therapy family

·         Specific evaluation of research studies 

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·         Induces epileptic like seizure

·         Used when all other treatments have failed and life threatening cases

·         How or why it works is not understood

·         Seizure reduces symptoms, possibly restoring the ability to regulate mood by enhancing neural transmission or improved blood flow

·         Developed by Cerletti and Brini (1938)

·         Side effects: morbidity rate is low (5%) some broken bones and bruising

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ECT Evaluation

·         Sackheim et al (1989) real ECT is more effective that placebo ones, bilateral is more likely to cause problems but is more effective

·         Scott (2004) review of 13 studies, ECT is more effective than drug therapy in short term treatment (this was not compared to SSRI new treatment drugs)

·         Rose et al (2003) 1/3 of patients complained of memory loss after ECT

·         Doesn’t fix the cause

·         Unethical to conduct

·         Not widely used

·         Invasion of personal autonomy

·         Cost benefit analysis must take place

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·         Most common treatment used

·         Identifies and corrects dysfunctional thoughts

·         Acts to change depressive behaviour

·         16-20 weekly sessions

·         Thought catching – how does one feeling link to another and how can changing one effect another

·         Behavioural activation – in being active we naturally achieve rewards 

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CBT Evaluation

·         Butler et al (2006) meta analysis, CBT is highly effective for treating depression

·         Holmes (2002) largest study conducted, CBT is less effective than drug therapy, but doesn’t take into account comorbidity and complex problems

·         Most highly recommended treatment

·         Kuyken and Tsivikos (2009) 15% variance is due to therapist competence

·         Relies on client engagement

·         Dropout rate is not accounted for in research

·         Doesn’t work for some people

·         Best to be combined with other treatments 

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