Punishment - Fines
Caldwell > advantages;
- Source of income for state
- Keeps offender out of prison (which is costly and criminogenic)
- Others can pay > moot
- May be seen as an 'operating cost'
Feldman > fines more effective for 1st timers and considerable no. of recidivists
Punishment - Probation
- 'Community penalty'
- Suspended sentence/community order & meet w/ probation officer
- To keep tabs on offenders and keep them on track
- Can still care for their family
- Stays out of prison
- Less costly
Lloyd et al > no difference in reconviction rates
Punishment - Prison
- Punishment & deterrance
Is it a deterrent?
- No- High re-offending rates
- But - Threat does stop crime in the first place
Lloyd > no more effective than other methods
Glaser > community supervision for 1st timers more effective, particularly those w/ good jobs, relationships etc
However found to be effective for habitual offenders
Depends on characteristics of offender, not type of punishment
Treatment - TE
- Behaviour modification programme
- Treatment works to modify behaviour
Research suggests TE has a direct short-term effect on specific behaviours, e.g. Hobbs & Holt found sig. increase in target beh. > only used juvenile offenders
Will TE work on adult offenders?
- Ayllon & Millamn say yes, but will last beyond prison?
- Rice et al failed to find any benefit to TE
- Could TE just be a means of control w/in prisons?
- Ethics of TW > prisons tend to use punishment over reward
Treatment - Anger Management
- Can be used both inside and outside prison
- Based on belief anger causes crime
- Anger must be controlled therefore
- Used increasingly in prisons
Limited research however & has been conflicting;
Law - 1/8 people completed anger management showed any improvement
Hunter - reported improvements in several areas
Suggests is a promising therapy, if unproven