Treatment & Punishment of Crime

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Punishment - Fines

Caldwell > advantages;

  • Economical
  • Source of income for state
  • Keeps offender out of prison (which is costly and criminogenic)


  • Others can pay > moot
  • May be seen as an 'operating cost' 

Feldman > fines more effective for 1st timers and considerable no. of recidivists

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Punishment - Probation

  • 'Community penalty'
  • Suspended sentence/community order & meet w/ probation officer
  • To keep tabs on offenders and keep them on track


  • Can still care for their family
  • Stays out of prison
  • Less costly

Lloyd et al > no difference in reconviction rates

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Punishment - Prison

Four functions;

  • Incapacitation
  • Rehabilitation
  • Punishment & deterrance

Is it a deterrent?

  • No- High re-offending rates
  • But - Threat does stop crime in the first place

Lloyd > no more effective than other methods

Glaser > community supervision for 1st timers more effective, particularly those w/ good jobs, relationships etc

However found to be effective for habitual offenders

Depends on characteristics of offender, not type of punishment

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Treatment - TE

  • Behaviour modification programme
  • Treatment works to modify behaviour

Research suggests TE has a direct short-term effect on specific behaviours, e.g. Hobbs & Holt found sig. increase in target beh. > only used juvenile offenders 

Will TE work on adult offenders? 

  • Ayllon & Millamn say yes, but will last beyond prison? 
  • Rice et al failed to find any benefit to TE
  • Could TE just be a means of control w/in prisons?
  • Ethics of TW > prisons tend to use punishment over reward
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Treatment - Anger Management

  • Can be used both inside and outside prison
  • Based on belief anger causes crime
  • Anger must be controlled therefore
  • Used increasingly in prisons

Limited research however & has been conflicting;

Law - 1/8 people completed anger management showed any improvement

Hunter - reported improvements in several areas

Suggests is a promising therapy, if unproven

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