Treaties, 1919-23

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The Treaty of St Germain

  • Signed between the Allies and Austria on 10 September 1919.
  • As a result, the Austrian Empire was broken up, with Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia and Poland made new countries.
  •  Austria agreed not to re-unite with Germany without the League's permission.
  • Austria could only have 30,000 troops.
  • Its weapon holdings were limited and it was only allowed one weapons factory.
  • Not allowed a navy or air force. Could have three small boats to patrol the Danube.

Effects of the treaty:

  • Austria lost huge amounts of farmland and industry.
  • Road and rail networks of the old empire didn't work well for the new Austria or new nation states.
  • Had to pay duty to trade with places once in its empire. Its economy failed. The Bank of Vienna collapsed and no reparations were paid.
  • New nation states were weak. Most had groups that were unhappy about the boundaries drawn up at the treaties and disagreed over how they should be governed.
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The Treaty of Neuilly

  • Signed between the Allies and Bulgaria on 27 November 1919.
  • As a result, Bulgaria lost land to Greece and Yugoslavia. Had to agree that people living in these lands could choose their citizenship and move freely to country of their choice until 1921.
  • Its army was limited to 20,000 troops.
  • Its weapon holdings were limited and it was only allowed one weapons factory.
  • Not allowed a navy or air force. Could have ten small boats to patrol the Danube.
  • Reparations were set at £100 million.

Effects of the treaty:

  • Although it gained land from Turkey, Bulgaria resented losing land.
  • Many people disliked the boundaries drawn up; ethnic rivalries were created in some areas.
  • It resented the restrictions of its forces.
  • It resented that it was the only country to actually pay reparations, a huge burden on its economy.
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The Treaty of Trianon

  • Signed between the Allies and Hungary on 4 June 1920.
  • As a result, Hungary was made a separate country, no longer part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
  • It lost land to Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia and Austria.
  • It's army was limited to 35,000 troops.
  • It's weapons holdings were limited and it was only allowed one weapons factory.
  • Could have no navy or air force. Allowed three small boats to patrol the Danube.
  • Reparations set at over £400 million.

Effects of the treaty:

  • Hungary lost about two-thirds of its land and three million people.
  • Romania took more land on its border in 1919. Allies couldn't get Romania to agree to the border or had set. Its government resigned.
  • Hungary became communist.
  • It never paid reparations.
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The Treaty of Sèvres

  • Signed between the Allies and Turkey on 10 August 1920.
  • As a result, it lost the Eastern Trace and Smyrna to Greece and land to Bulgaria but kept Constantinople and a small amount of land around it.
  • Arabia became independent and Armenia and Kurdistan were set up. Syria, Palestine, Transjordan and Iran became mandates of Allied countries, working towards independence.
  • The Straits and its forts there were no longer controlled by Turkey and ships were able to pass through 'in war or peace'.
  • Its army was limited to 50,000 troops.
  • Its weapon holdings were limited and the military commission was to set the number of weapons factories.
  • Not allowed a navy or air force. Allowed 13 small boats to patrol its coast.
  • Allied troops were to stay on in Turkey to enforce military conditions.
  • No reparations, but they did have to pay costs of foreign troops on Turkey.

Effects of the Treaty:

  • People of Turkey were outraged by the treaty. An uprising was led by Mustapha Kemal and the Sultan's government was overthrown. Rather than fight Kemal's forces, the Allies agreed to renegotiate the treaty.
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The Treaty of Lausanne

  • Signed between the Allies and Turkey on 24 July 1923.
  • Made as a renegotiation of the Treaty of Sevres.
  • As a result, it regained the Eastern Thrace and Smyrna from Greece.
  • It regained control of the forts that controlled the Straits, but ships were still to pass freely.
  • No limits were placed on Turkey's armed forces.
  • There were no reparations, but they did have to pay the costs of foreign troops in Turkey.
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