Travel and Tourism

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What are the types of Tourism?

Domestic: taking holidays and trips in your own country 

Outbound: travelling to a different country for a visit or a holiday

Inbound: visitors from overseas coming into the country

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What are the types of Travel?

Leisure travel - travelling to enjoy yourself: Day trips, Short breaks, holidays, visiting friends and family, staycations and special events. 

Business travel: MICE: Meetings, Incentive, Conference and Events

Specialist travel: Adventure tourism (takes place in a nature environment - involves physical activities), Cultural Heritage Travel (places of importance about the past and present - historical and educational), Health Travel (travelling to improve health), Education (schools, colleges, universities for data collection or to learn new skils), Volunteer work, Dark tourism (a place where a horrible event has happened), Eco-tourism (providing simple tourist facilities natural locations), and Conservation (supports wildlife protection & provides opportunities about nature, current threats and helps wild animals). 

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What is Sustainable Tourism and what does it entai

Meeting the needs of present tourists and local communities whilst protecing natural, historical and cultural environments for the future. 

Environmental Factors:                                                

  • Best usage of natural resources 
  • Protects the environment
  • Protects natural heritage and wildlife
  • Very litle impact on the surrouding countryside. 

Social/Cultural Factors: 

  • Good for the country and local people
  • Help people communicate well
  • Inproves the local quality of life
  • Protects the culture and traditions. 

Economic:Local people make money, more jobs for local people, improving the lives of people, and improving developing infrastructure and the economic development of a community 

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What are the benefits of sustainable tourism?

What are the benefits of sustainable tourism?

  • Improves reputations of businesses 
  • Saves money
  • Creates links with the local community
  • Reduces the amount of waste created
  • Reduces the amount of energy used
  • Helps protect the environment 
  • More businesses compete
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What is GDP?

GDP - Gross Domestic Product - the amount of money a country makes over a set period of time. 

Direct employment: Jobs created by the travel and tourism industry - Tour guides, travel agents, tour operators, air cabin crews, hotel staff, translators, Bureau de change staff, visitor attractions staff and car hire staff. 

Indirect employment: Jobs created to supply and support tourism organisations. 

Economic multiplier effect: direct spending by tourists snowballs throughout the whole economy. 

Tourist spending can lead to jobs, infrastructure development and can lead to more services which locals can enjoy too. Inbound: number of inbound touists and how much they spend whilst here. Outbound: number of overnight trips and how much they spend whilst here. 

Infrastructure: As more tourists come in the country, we will need more facilities - the money gained from tourism will be used to improve things, like: transport network, water supplies, waste disposal, health facilities and leisure facilites. 

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The Industries in the tourism sector 1

Tour operators (companies that organise package holidays - they all provide package holidays, accommodation, travel, transfers, excursions and other services). Domestic - UK holidays for people in the UK (Shearings, Haven Holidays), Outbound - UK people wanting holidays overseas (Thompson holidays and Thomas cook) and Inbound - Overseas tourists traveling to the UK (Pathfinders and GTI Travel). 

Travel Agents - people who provide expert advice, arrange and book trips, excursions and package holidays or individual components to book holidays for customers on the type of and availablitiy of holidays. 3 Main types of travel agents: 

  • Independents: Small privately owned business with fewer than 5 outlets or shops (Giles Travel)
  • Multiples: Companies with a number of branches/shops througout the country (Thompson Holidays and Thomas Cook)
  • Online: Companies that only operate on the internet (Expedia and Travelocity) 
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The Industries in the tourism sector 2

Advantages of booking with a Travel Agent: 

  • You can buy everything you need for your holiday in one place in a high street shop 
  • You speak to someone face to face, who helps you to find the best deal
  • You speak to someone who knows where the best places are, what the best products are and can give you expert advice
  • You know you can complain and get money back is something goes wrong 

Disadvantages of booking: 

  • It can be more expensive as there is commission put on top
  • Choices may be limited 
  • Cost - excursions offered by agencies may be more expensive than at the destination
  • Some tour operators offer incentives for agencies to meet targets and so customers might be sold things they do not need. 
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The Industries in the tourism sector 3

Online Travel Services -They allow customers to access information about airlines, hotels, car-rental companies, cruise lines and last-minute travel packages. 

Advantages of Online: 

  • Easy for customer to book their holiday when they want.
  • Customers can compare products and costs of services of lots of holiday provider
  • Easy to make up the holiday that matches your own needs
  • You find out instantly what is available, making it easy to get last minute deals


  • No expert help, no one to talk for advice
  • Limited choice of itinerary
  • Lack of security can lead to identity theft or credit card theft
  • Customer has sort out their own problems if something goes wrong
  • Easy to miss things when you book yourself like transport to and from the aiport and insurance
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Passenger Transport - Road

(Domestic tourism) Car and coach. 


  • Cars can stop wheneer they want
  • They can take more luggage
  • Not many toll roads in the UK (roads you have to pay)
  • Can choose how loud your music is
  • Navigation is easy with Google Maps and a Sat nav


  • Fuel is expensive 
  • A lot of traffic which slows you down
  • Hard for Inbound tourist as they have to get used to driving on the opposite side of the road
  • Have to concentrate to avoid accidents, this is tiring for driver
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Passenger Transport - Rail

Advantages of Rail: 

  • Very comfortable (especially first class)
  • Can get almost everywhere by rail
  • Can slep, read and work while travelling
  • Has a very good safety record
  • Can buy food and drink, a toilet and some have a restaurant
  • Most now have charging facilities and Wi-Fi


  • Exepensive
  • Prices can be confusing
  • Changes can be difficult for foreign travellers
  • Sometimes you have to change train a few times to get to you destination - can be difficult because of laggage and children
  • Can be very busy and noisy
  • Trains can be cancelled and delayed
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Passenger Transport - Air

Fatest way to travel long distances and is provided by lots of different airlines, some offer domestic routes and most offer international routes. 

Scheduled Airlines - full serviced airlines, price of ticket includes baggage allowance, food, drinks and entertainment on board - Virgin Airways and British Airways

Low-cost scheduled airlines - ticket price low but extra fees are charged for each service - EasyJet and RyanAir

Charter Airlines - flights are only there for holiday schedules and therefore do not run all through the year or as often 

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Passenger Transport - Sea

Main Routes: South coast - France, The Netherlands and Spain, West Coast - Republic of Ireland and Nothern Ireland, and East coast - Scandanavia.

Types of Transport: 

  • Regional transport (local transport that covers larges areas or specific regions in the country- Metrolink and First Buses)
  • National Transport (one part of the country to another, Domestic and Business tourism - National Express Coaches and National Rail Network)
  • Global/International transport (travel outside country borders to connect to international destinations - Virgin Atlantic and Eurostar) 
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Serviced Accommodation - has facilities and services that can be included in the price of a room; housekeeping, meals, concierge, room service, gym and entertainment. Hotels (1 small budget to 5 luxury), Motels and Guest houses/Bed and Breakfast. 

Non-serviced Accommodation - product of accommodation only (a bed) additional facilities may be available like tea and coffee making. Apartments, Villas/Cottages and Chalets, Youth Hostels, Camping and Caravan Sites, Holiday Parks. 

Self-Catering Accommodation - includes a kitchen so that you can cook for yourself. 

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Visitor Attractions

Natural Attractions - environment that is interesting to tourists & some natural areas have been built to help protect the environment. National Park, Dorset Coast and Amazon Rainforest. 

Purpose built attractiong - a man-made attraction that has been built to attract tourists. London Eye, Altion Towers and Chester zoo. 

Heritage attractions - associated with history and/or culture; historic buildings, historic coastlines that were not built for NOT built for tourists, and places that contain pieces of history. Heritage tourism may also help protect traditions and historic features. Windsor Castle, Manchester museum and Stone Henge. 

Purpose: Entertainment, Education, Leisure and recreation and conservation. 

Products and Services: information and interpretation for people who cannot speak English, rides, exhibits, events, tours and guides, educational talks, hospitality and catering and sourvenirs. 

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Arts and Entertainment

Special Events: the Southport Flower Show - events that happen periodically in the same place, and events that change place like the Olympics. Mega Events - attract a lot of people like the Olympics and FIFA World Cup. Hallmark Events - events linked the character and culture of a country like The Chelsea Flower Show and the Rio do Janeiro Carnival. Major Events - attract large numbers like Formula One Grand Prix. Local Community Events - aimed at local people for social, fun and entertainment value and are supported by local councils to encourage people to take part in sports & activities like Oldham Carnival. 

Festivals: short term and occur once a year. Celebrates a wide range of interests or activites including music, literature, arts and crafts, food, comedy or film.They have a variety of products and services; markets, food & drink stalls/rides, shopping, crafts, maps and programmes, toilets, health and hygiene facilities, security and stewards.

 Theatre: variety of entertainment; Drama, Comedy, Plays, Musicals, Operas and Ballet. Tickets can be very different in price depending on which theatre it is, where you are sat and which show it is. 

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Tourism Development and Promotion

Local, regional and national organisations have responsibility for tourism development and promotion:Tourist/visitor information centres, Local government departments - DCMS (Department for Culture, Media and Sport) they decide on the policies for tourism, promoting growth in tourism and encouraging domestic tourism and the money it makes & also they fund the British Tourist authority (VisitBritain) to promote the UK overseas and supports England`s Tourist Board (VisitEngland), regional tourist boards and national tourist agencies. 

National Tourism Agencies: they market tourist companies and destinations for a whle country. They provide information on tourist destinations and products, both at hme and abroad. Their role is to encourage inbound tourists to visit the country, by promoting the countries identity, tourist attractions and natural features. 

Regional Tourists Boards: their websites provide information directly or link visitors to destination websites that give information on what the region has to offer. Examples are; East of England Tourist Board, North West Tourist, London Tourist Board and South West Tourist Board. 

Tourism and Visitor Information Centres: Their role is to provide information for tourists in the local area and they give advice to local tourism businesses and promot local events.

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Trade and Professional Bodies

  • CAA - Civil Aviation Authority - They regulate aviation (flying) and make sure that the air is managed safely and customers are protected. 
  • ATOL - Air Travel Organisers` Licence - Financial protection scheme, run by CAA, and ensures that travellers do not lose their money or become stranded abroad. 
  • ORR - Office of Rail Regulation - regualtes health and safety on Britain`s railways and makes sure customers are treated fairly and gives taxpayers value for money. 
  • ABTA - Association of British Travel Agents - regulates British travel agents and tour operators, ensures that customers receive a high standard of service and has a fund to help repatriate stranded holidaymakers. 
  • AITO - Association of Independent Tour Operators - they represent independent tour operators and travel agents and they want high levels of customer satisfaction and good quality service. 
  • N/A - UK Inbound - Their aim is to encourage inbound tourism by helping members manage a success business. 
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Ancillary organisations

Car Hire - Hertz, Avis and Enterprise. Services include: online or telephone booking, wide range choice of vehicles, dropping the vehicle off at the airport or collecting from the airport, and car insurance included in the price. 

Travel Insurance - many tour operators have teamed up with travel insurance providers; EasyJet in partnership with Allianz Global Assistance. 

Airport services - there are cafes, restaurants, bars and retail shops in airports and also lounges where passengers can relax before they get a flight. There is also a Exchange Bureau so passengers can exchange their money to forein money. 

Event booking - Some organisations specialise in arranging and booking tours at tourist destinations, tickets can be brought as extras to a holiday and they can be brought online or sometimes a ticket office outlet can be found on a high street in larger towns and cities. Example; Ticketmaster. 

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Types of organisations in tourism sector

Private: privately owned, they are owned by an individual or partners or by a group of people called Shareholders. The main priority is to make a profit which can then be paid to shareholders or kept by the owner. Examples: Thompson Holidays, Easyjet, Haven and Hilton. 

Public: run by the government and their aim is to not make a profit instead they exost to provide a wider service to the community by informing, educating and advising the customer. 

Voluntary: Often charities, some are presure groups who try to influence government policy and consumer thinking e.g. Tourism Concern. They do not try to make a profit so any money that is made funds their cause, they get their money from merchandise (things sold in shops), donations and grants. Some exist to educate the public, to promote a particular cause, educate and inform. 

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Interrelationship - companies working together

Common Ownership: The same company owns a lot of different businesses. 

Vertical Intergration: where a business at one point of the chain of distribution purchases or acquires a business at a higher or lower level of the chain of distribution. E.g. Thomas Cook provides the transfers, airlines and hotels. 

Horizontal Intergration: where businesses at the same level in the chain of distribution merg together or are purchased by another business. E.g. Other tour operators owned by Thomas Cook group, they own lots of businesses all doing the same thing. 

Commercial Partnerships: Seperate organisations working together on a common venture - hotel groups working with airline. The two companies have different owners but work together to sell one product, like a package holiday. 

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Ads and Cons of Common ownership and commercial pa

  • Increases sales and money coming due to more efficient business operations 
  • Marketing and promotion efforts are doubled, increasing customer and trade recognition 
  • Combined expertise helps companies to provide good customer care
  • Gives them more power over suppliers because they are buying more, suppliers dont want to lose them as customers so make their prices cheaper
  • Enables greater economies of scale (when making larger quantities of one thing it costs less to make each one), this happens because they are selling more of the same product
  • Shared resources 
  • Wider customer base 

Size of operation,it becomes too big to manage properly, less competition means that the customer has less choice, loss of personalised customer care, the company ends up monopolising the market so it has more control over the whole industry, inflexibility (not easy for them to change producs to meet changing customer wants and needs), and can lead to large scale redundancies if the company decides to close branches and offices. 

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The role of Consumer Technology

Airports (self-service, check in, security), passengers can enter their details and print their boarding passes on machines this mean that they can go straight to the gate to catch the plane, Ad`s: they save time for the customer and it is cheaper because you dont need as many check in staff. Con`s: people could lose their jobs, not everyone finds it easy to use technology, and less personal contact with the customers. 

Visitor attractions: more interactive activities so that you can have a hands-on experience, booking online: Ad`s; you can book ahead, sometimes you get better offers online, and can print off tackets so you dont have to queue. Con`s; you might not have internet access and you might using technology difficult. 

E-tickets and m-tickets: tickets can be sent straight to email when booking online for hotels, flights, trains and events. 

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