Transport, it's management, development of intergrated, efficient and sustainable systems.

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  • Created by: Lilly
  • Created on: 02-03-14 10:45

Transport Issue

  • Increased car ownership, most concentrated in developing countries. As a result traffic has increased. Reasons for this increase:

1- Large urban working population-sub/counter urbanisation= increased number of journies

2- Growth of Urban incomes- more people are buying cars- UK more than 30% own 2 or more cars.

3- Economic growth- increased retailing and other consumer services has led to more service lorries and white vans on urban roads, freight traffic likely to increase as e-commerce continues to grow.

4- Growth in number of journies- furher distances being travveled- work and leisure.

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Solutions to problems

1- AVOID- traffic to avoid areas which are experiencing congestion/ other issues

  • Vechile registration quotas- Mexico city 'Hoy No Circula'
  • Congestion charges- London started in 2003, 2007- £8
  • Emission-based road use charges- Germany
  • Mixed-use public transport development - Curitiba
  • Bus lanes with priority & junctions- Finchly Road

2- SHIFT- used to get people to stop using private cars and use alternative systems.

  • Public bike scheme- Boris' Bikes
  • Rail based mass transit- Tokyo
  • Pedestrianistion, cycle networks- Copenhagen
  • Bus transity- Curitiba

3- IMPROVE- improve efficientcy of all forms of transport

  • Fuel efficiecy regulations- EU
  • Electric bicycles
  • Hybrid cars, electric cars
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Two types of measures

1- SOFT MEASURES

  • Any system that helps people choose to reduce car usage and makes alternative prospects more attactive- programmes which do not require large scale construction
  • Leeds City council- set targets for Greenbely businesses as part of reginal spatial stratergy- car share schemes and cycle to work schemes. Public transport info improved an made widely avaliable. Schemes like 'Go car' set up- hybrid cars to rent fr one-off long distance journies.

2- HARD MEASURES

  • Systems which are designed to alleviate traffic porblems and usually encompass large scale engineering
  • Would include- altering the road network to allow for segregated bus lanes
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Case Study- Stockholm, Sweden

  • Described as '1st green capital of Europe,' particularly the Hammarby district.

MEASURES INTRODUCED:

  • Segegated tram system, means that traffic conditions on main roads does not affect/ delay trams, leading to more efficient and fast ssem of tranport- more people incentivized to use tram system due to short journies times
  • Transport system is intergrated, all modes of transport require only one ticket, all run by same company- 'SL'
  • Public buses run on Ethanol- reduces emissions and makes system sustainable and cheap
  • Electrical vechiles well catered for, 100 charging locations offering total of 140 chargin points.
  • 209- project began to build new cycel road and 6 new cycle lanes, improve exising lanes
  • 'Envac' waste disposale system has had effect of reducing waste disposal traffic by 60% in city
  • Since 1990- has reduced CO2 emmissions by 20% per capita - figure is now half UK national average.
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Case Study- Freiburg, Germany

  • 2000-2008- 40% of journies walked, cycled or used Public transport

MEASURES:

  • Integrated- Intergrated PT with walking and cycle routes
  • Light railway- every 7.5 minutes, intergrated with 26 bus lanes, in walking distance of 65% of residents (efficent)
  • Efficient- One ticket system throughout
  • 65% live in catchment area of train
  • 9000 places to park car- park and ride schemes
  • 120 one way streets- bikes allowed in both directions.
  • Sustainable- 500km of cycle routes
  • extensive areas of pedestrianisation
  • Needs little financial input, passenger fares pay 90% of cost
  • 1982-2007- car journies feel 38% to 32%, 68% of journies on foot, bike or PT
  • 1992-2005= CO2 emmissions per capita fell by 13%
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Case study- Curitiba Brazil

Intergrated- 'intergrated tranport netweok#' bus lanes interconnected through 20 terminals

  • Articulated buses- carry 3000 people per day

Efficient

  • Bus at one of the stops every 90 seconds
  • Stop at cylindrical clear walled stations, with turnstiles, steps and wheelchair lifts
  • x-large doors, ramps-- same level bus boading - Bus only at sop for 15-19 seconds
  • Transports 2.6 million every day. used by 70% of city's people.
  • Articulated buses reduce travel time by 1/3

Sustainable

  • Alternative fuels- less pollution, uses 30% less fuel per person than 8 other Brazilian cities of same size
  • ''Green exchange;;- ecnourages low-income families to seperate their rubbish in exchange for products (food, bus tickets)- surplus food does not got o waste and encourages use of buses.
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