- Increased car ownership, most concentrated in developing countries. As a result traffic has increased. Reasons for this increase:
1- Large urban working population-sub/counter urbanisation= increased number of journies
2- Growth of Urban incomes- more people are buying cars- UK more than 30% own 2 or more cars.
3- Economic growth- increased retailing and other consumer services has led to more service lorries and white vans on urban roads, freight traffic likely to increase as e-commerce continues to grow.
4- Growth in number of journies- furher distances being travveled- work and leisure.
Solutions to problems
1- AVOID- traffic to avoid areas which are experiencing congestion/ other issues
- Vechile registration quotas- Mexico city 'Hoy No Circula'
- Congestion charges- London started in 2003, 2007- £8
- Emission-based road use charges- Germany
- Mixed-use public transport development - Curitiba
- Bus lanes with priority & junctions- Finchly Road
2- SHIFT- used to get people to stop using private cars and use alternative systems.
- Public bike scheme- Boris' Bikes
- Rail based mass transit- Tokyo
- Pedestrianistion, cycle networks- Copenhagen
- Bus transity- Curitiba
3- IMPROVE- improve efficientcy of all forms of transport
- Fuel efficiecy regulations- EU
- Electric bicycles
- Hybrid cars, electric cars
Two types of measures
1- SOFT MEASURES
- Any system that helps people choose to reduce car usage and makes alternative prospects more attactive- programmes which do not require large scale construction
- Leeds City council- set targets for Greenbely businesses as part of reginal spatial stratergy- car share schemes and cycle to work schemes. Public transport info improved an made widely avaliable. Schemes like 'Go car' set up- hybrid cars to rent fr one-off long distance journies.
2- HARD MEASURES
- Systems which are designed to alleviate traffic porblems and usually encompass large scale engineering
- Would include- altering the road network to allow for segregated bus lanes
Case Study- Stockholm, Sweden
- Described as '1st green capital of Europe,' particularly the Hammarby district.
- Segegated tram system, means that traffic conditions on main roads does not affect/ delay trams, leading to more efficient and fast ssem of tranport- more people incentivized to use tram system due to short journies times
- Transport system is intergrated, all modes of transport require only one ticket, all run by same company- 'SL'
- Public buses run on Ethanol- reduces emissions and makes system sustainable and cheap
- Electrical vechiles well catered for, 100 charging locations offering total of 140 chargin points.
- 209- project began to build new cycel road and 6 new cycle lanes, improve exising lanes
- 'Envac' waste disposale system has had effect of reducing waste disposal traffic by 60% in city
- Since 1990- has reduced CO2 emmissions by 20% per capita - figure is now half UK national average.
Case Study- Freiburg, Germany
- 2000-2008- 40% of journies walked, cycled or used Public transport
- Integrated- Intergrated PT with walking and cycle routes
- Light railway- every 7.5 minutes, intergrated with 26 bus lanes, in walking distance of 65% of residents (efficent)
- Efficient- One ticket system throughout
- 65% live in catchment area of train
- 9000 places to park car- park and ride schemes
- 120 one way streets- bikes allowed in both directions.
- Sustainable- 500km of cycle routes
- extensive areas of pedestrianisation
- Needs little financial input, passenger fares pay 90% of cost
- 1982-2007- car journies feel 38% to 32%, 68% of journies on foot, bike or PT
- 1992-2005= CO2 emmissions per capita fell by 13%
Case study- Curitiba Brazil
Intergrated- 'intergrated tranport netweok#' bus lanes interconnected through 20 terminals
- Articulated buses- carry 3000 people per day
- Bus at one of the stops every 90 seconds
- Stop at cylindrical clear walled stations, with turnstiles, steps and wheelchair lifts
- x-large doors, ramps-- same level bus boading - Bus only at sop for 15-19 seconds
- Transports 2.6 million every day. used by 70% of city's people.
- Articulated buses reduce travel time by 1/3
- Alternative fuels- less pollution, uses 30% less fuel per person than 8 other Brazilian cities of same size
- ''Green exchange;;- ecnourages low-income families to seperate their rubbish in exchange for products (food, bus tickets)- surplus food does not got o waste and encourages use of buses.