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  • Created by: Lucy
  • Created on: 26-04-13 09:37

Transmigration in Indonesia

What is transmigration? A Transmigration scheme (as set up by the Indonesian government) provides transportation for people to move to and stay in a new village/town, in a less populated part of the country.

What is provided for the migrant?
A House/Farming plot/A basic infrastructure/A living support allowance (for the first 18 months).

What were the 3 main goals of transmigration?
-To move many Indonesians from the densely populated inner islands (Java, Bali, Madura), to the less densely populated outer islands, to achieve more balanced demographic development.
To remove poverty, by providing land and new opportunities for poor landless settlers to generate income.
To give new opportunities to the outer islands.


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Transmigration in Indonesia

-By early 1990s, outmigration has become a common response to overcrowded conditions caused by rising population resulting in impoverishment.
-People from Central Java moving out 73% increase in outmigration from 1971 to 1980
-Government sponsored Transmigration Program
-From 1969 to 1989, this programme allocated 730,000 families from overpopulated islands of Java
-Nearly half of these migrants went to Sumatra – particularly its Southern provinces
-Smaller numbers went to Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku and Irian Jaya

-Land disputes with indigenous inhabitants
-Deforestation of sensitive rainforest areas
-Problems of agricultural productivity  and social infrastructure
-Sparsely populated areas became increasingly populated



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Transmigration in Indonesia

Migrants were often moved to entirely new 'transmigration villages', constructed in regions that had been relatively unimpacted by human activity. By settling on this land, natural resources were used up and lands became overgrazed, resulting in deforestation.]
• Soil and climate unproductive compared to the volcanic soil of Java and Bali
• Settlers often lacked farming skills
• Programme failed to improve the situation of the migrants

Cultural implications:
-Indonesians of different ethnic backgrounds and occupations were being increasingly intermingled.
-1990s violent conflicts between some transmigrant and indigenous people; in Kalimantan
-Hundreds killed – Madurese transmigrant and the indigenous Dayak people


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Transmigration in Indonesia

Recent changes
-The course of transmigration policies have changed greatly
-The official transmigration policies have been heavily reduced by the government
-forced migration no longer possible (people now persuaded)
-Current government relying on TNCs to influence transmigration, by finding new resources in unpopulated areas.
-Migrants will search for work
-Current government gave TNCs permission into more fragile areas.



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