Translation is the process of a ribosome reading RNA and using the sequence to create a protein by combining various amino acids.
- Enzyme tRNA attaches amino acids to their corresponding tRNA molecules. Each amino acid has its own tRNA molecule with the anticodon of that amino acid.
- A small ribosonal sub unit attaches its self to the mRNA strand.
- It moves along the mRNA until it finds a start codon, in which the tRNA and large ribsonal sub unit joins it.
- Other tRNA fall move into the binding site, the first tRNA then leaves and amino acids join each other untill a stop codon is reached.
Transcription is the process in which an RNA sequence is produced from a RNA template, such as mRNA - which carries the information for the synthesis of proteins.
- DNA Helicase seperates two DNA strands by breaking there hydrogen bonds between bases.
- RNA Nucleotides with complementary bases will then line up among the exposed DNA on the template strand.
- RNA Polymerase then joins the RNA nucleotides together, by catalysing the formation of phosopodiester bonds
- The RNA polymerase then adds nucleotide triphosphates from the cytoplasm, forming a strand of mRNA.