Transition Metals - General Properties

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  • Created by: tom
  • Created on: 26-02-16 23:43

Oxidation States

Transition metals have variable oxidation states:

  • V: +2; +3; +4; +5
  • Cr: +3; +6
  • Mn: +2; +4; +7
  • Fe: +2; +3
  • Co: +2; +3
  • Ni: +2
  • Cu: +1; +2
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Catalysis

Transition metals act as heterogeneous catalysts. Transition metal ions in solution can act as homogeneous catalysts. In particular learn:

Iron in the Haber Process

Vanadium (v) Oxide in the Contact Process

Nickel in hydrogenation reactions

Platinum/Rhodium in catalytic oxidation of ammonia

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Other Physical Properties

  • Good conductor of electricity and have high densities
  • Many transition metals form coloured complexes
  • Transition metal ions in aqueous solution are often coloured.
  • Aqueous transition metal ions are actually hexaaqua cations e.g. Ni2+ is actually [Ni(H2O)6]2+
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Electronic Configuration

  • The 3d fills after the 4s
  • The atoms of Cr and Cu are unusual:

-  Cr atom is 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 3d5, 4s1

- Cu atom is 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 3d10, 4s1

  • The first series of transition metal atoms lose their 4s electrons first when forming ions.
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