- Created by: 13gpascoe
- Created on: 15-01-20 16:28
Rebellions undermined confidence in Somerset - been slow to act, relied upon the military expertise of Warwick (NL) to end Kett's. Councillors resented his assumption of title of Lord Protector - he hasn't ruled with them. Angry that they hadn't been consulted about move away from NC. Ed said charges against Som - "following his opinion" "enriching himself of my treasure" - built Somerset House!
- His last events: 5th Oct - orders all loyal nobles to rally around him at Hampton C, puts out a statement to the public saying the King is in danger (believable given 17 rebellions) with evil councillors, wants the people to come to HC and help. Som knows he is about to be ousted.
- 18 councillors issue counter-proclamations refusing to support Som & Q his leadership, say Ed isn't in danger - don't rally - accuse Som of bad gov.
- Chief accusers = Arundel & Southampton (Wriothesley), Cons Caths, want Mary as regent until Ed is old enough to rule. (As a woman she can't rule so they place to effectively rule for her) EFFECTIVELY ANOTHER FACTIONAL STRUGGLE.
- Som has Ed - Ed realises what's happening - develops a 'cold', demands to be taken back to London. He's being accused of kidnapping the King - has clearly lost the King's favour, has to let Ed go back. Arrested for treason.
Earl of Warwick
- John Dudley-reputation as a strong man, = REF but knew an alliance with CONS was the best way to remove Somerset. Above all NL is a politician, religion comes 2nd
- Has been Som's right hand man, tones down his relig, allies with Cons, deserts Som
- Som negotiates with enemies, agrees to step down providing his life & land was spared
- 14th Oct - Som imprisoned - accused of kidnapping, post of Protector abolished
- Mary refused to become Regent & 're-educate' Ed - Cons intially try to put her in charge.
- Factional fighting cont - Som was released in order to support Warwick against the Caths, A&W (+ Lord Russell + Lord St John) vs NL (+Cranmer) NL uses his success after Kett's & the fact A&W won't really ever be able to control PC to win over R & St John. Then NL threatens A&W 'anyone going for S's blood goes for mine' - boots them off PC, makes himself NL - Ed agrees.
- Oct 1551 - NL makes himself Duke of NL, effectively been in control since Jan.
- Som involved in more plots vs NL, trying to regain power, counter coup - imprisoned again - executed Jan 1552, Ed notes he had "his head cut off". NL fabricates ev as he's fed up with S.
- NL makes himself "Lord President of the Council" - sounds more democratic and humble
- Cons faction had been defeated, NL filled the council with his allies. Introduces Ed to Council meetings, gave the pretence of working with him - uses Cranmer a lot.
NL Policies 1550 - the situation
- FP - @war with Fr & Scot. Som's garissons = costly failure. Holding onto Boulogne was an important symbol of H8 reign therefore important
- Economy & Finance - War vs Scot = expensive (£500,000) - debasement damaging econ - inflation & econ instability. Som hadn't attempted any econ reforms.
- Religion - 1stBCP (1549) - mod Prot, provoked rebellion in parts of Eng. Pressure from Refs increasing - radical prots gaining influence. Keeping current position would dissatisy radicals on both Prots.
- Social Order - 17 rebellions caused concerns among the elite, NL crushed Kett's, Som's anti-enc policy had been seen as a CAUSE of the rebellions. Expected action against enc. Som's policy against vagrants seen as harsh. 1549 harvest had been poor, 1550 was even worse.
NL Foreign Policy - France
- France - 1549 declared war. Henry II - anti Eng, wants Boulogne & Calais, afraid CV may help the Eng as Bol isn't far from Netherlands - doens't want a war with CV over Boul. War with Fr was unpop and ££. Laid seige to Boulogne - Eng fleet beat Fr in channel, meant Boulogne could be supplied by sea but NL has no £. France will succeed as Eng can't afford to get Boul back. Failed to enforce marriage of MQS & Ed.
- 1550, talks begin between Eng & Fr.
- 1550 = TofBoulogne- Eng suggest selling Bol to France in return for MQS marriage (she's enagaged to the Dauphin) This means LOSING H8 MILITARY LEGACY = HUMILIATING. Fr refuse, say they can sell but can't have MQS. NL has to accept. Terms: Eng withdraw from Boul, Fr pay £1,333,333 to Eng - less than H8 had once considered selling it for but more than Fr wanted to pay. Eng soldiers removed from Scot. No MQS. Defensive alliance between Fr & Eng - fear of CV as I.Wars. Ed to marry HII daugter.
- Boul was militarily & strategically useless to Eng - as too far from Calais. But abandonment of H8 F.policy. TofB really benefits Fr more than Eng - but as Eng can't afford B it was the best policy as Fr dominant in Scot too. ENG NOBLES - see it as a DISGRACE, HUMILIATING, doesn't make sense to them!!
NL Foreign Policy
Scot - poor, RW, after TofB withdraw troops from Scot. Border issue still not resolved. 1550 - Nl does a survey of the border - they are fighting over 15x4 miles - he strengthens garrisons at Berwick & Carlisle. 1551 - Eng & Scot sign Treaty of Norham - agreed border would go back to how it was under H8 before RW. Eng gain NOTHING. SCOTS GET EVERYTHING BACK.
HRE - relations with CV worsen, why? Annoyed - always been Eng ally now TofB. Prot changes in Eng, more radical. Pressure on Mary to conform to Prot. Trade with Neth broke down - Eng start looking for other markets. Eng ambassador @ court of CV - lectured him on Prot, wanted to hold Prot services. CV pressured NL to attack Fr in Habs-Valois wars - NL resists pressure.
Neths - cloth trade had been really imp to Eng. Antwerp going into decline so Eng looking for other markets - looking for a route to China, start trading with Russians - Muscovy Company. April 1550 - CV issues edict (like proc) allowing Inquisition to arrest prots in Neths - could be burnt to death if found guilty. ANNOYS Eng Merchants (mainly prot) so edict modified to not include foreigners. Dutch prots flee to Eng > collapse in cloth trade as most merchants = prot. 1551 CV considers invading Eng. > Eng puts embargo on sale of cloth to Neth. Harms both econs > CV wants alliance because of Fr threat > 1552 attempts to improve relationship.