There are four types of transformations: translation, reflection, rotation, enlargement.
Translation this is about moving a shape a certain amount following two instructions:
a) Across a grid, right movement is positive, left movement is negative.
b) Up and down. Up is positive, down is negative.
The instructions are given in the form of a translation vector, written like this:
[- 3] This means 5 to the right then 3 down.
This is when you are given a line in which you have to reflect a shape. the line acts like a mirror and the shape is reflected on the other side of the line.
e.g you could be asked to reflect the shape in the x axis ( horizontal axis)
this is when the shape is rotated about a given point ( the centre of rotation) through a certain angle ( the angle of rotation) and in a certain direction.
the angle you will rotate the shape through is generally 90, 180, or 270 degrees. Often the direction of rotation is given as clockwise or anti clockwise. but if not clock wise is negative and anticlockwise is positive.
e.g. you could be asked to rotate a shape about the point (0,0): clockwise through and angle of 90 degrees.
Enlargement can be involve making the shape larger or smaller , by a given scale factor. e.g. enlargement by a scale factor of 2 means to make all the sides of the new shape twice as big as the original. Enlargement by a scale factor of 0.5 means make all the sides of the new shape half as big as the original.
You also have a centre of enlargement, this helps decide where to draw the enlarged shape. E.g If it is a scale factor of 2, then each corner of the new shape should be twice as far from the centre of enlargement as the original shape.