Transfer of Data

topic 4 


network type


local area network 


wide area network 


metropolitain area network 


personal area network 

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  • a small network 
  • limited to singel collection  of mechines 
  • LAN also form basie building block for constucting large networks called interwork 
  • a LAN can be as small at just 2 computer connetced with 1 cable 

LAN Characteristics 

  • usally based in one building 
  • speed is at  the oranisation discreation 
  • management adn mantiencace are the resposbilty of the organisation 
  • there is choice if technolgy 
  • there is no outside involement form outside 
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  • complex network 
  • span distane measured in miles and link  or more seprapte LAN
  • WAN uses servives of third party  communcation provied 
  • the internet is an example of WAN 

WAN characterise 

  • cover large georaphical area 
  • useualy  uses a telecommunication provider 
  • slower than MAN and LAN 
  • maitencc is shared between the teleccommunation proived ad oranisation 
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  • MAN use WAN technologies to interconnect  LAN within a georpaphical reginal area such as city or  town 
  • can be contained withing an organsation site or regional 
  • generaaly operate on lines leased from teclcommuncation provdier 
  • operates slower than A LAN
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  • example of PAN is bletoth or infraed 
  • common device  that use PAN are normaly phone o similar sevices. EG connecting o a printer or talking with wirless headset 
  • PAN us easy and cheap to mainntain beacuse it dose use and hardwear so ut dosent require any cables or router
  • onyl nodes close to the area cna conect so it limited to very short range 
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peer to peer architecture

  • think of a bus network 
  • it dose not have central computer or dedciated server 
  • all computer are independent 
  • most commonl found in home and small netowkr consting of 10 or fewer machies 
  • they share and requs resoure from one and another 
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client server architecture

  • has at least one server that is dedicated to provding servie to the client 
  • this meachines may or may not be used as an ordinary machines 
  • you find this in a corporate or business environment 
  • this of start tree and mesh network 
  • ifromation is requsted by clinent to server and the sever returns the requsuted infomation 
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Bus network

  • single calbe join all the nodes toghter 
  • easy to install 
  • a problem with the backbone will stop the einter network 
  • if there are  a lot workstaion on the netork date can travle slowyl 
  • easy to add extart work stations 
  • use less cable than other networsk 
  • low secuirty- all workstsion can see all of the date on netwrok 
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star network

  • each workstaion is connted by it onw cable direclty to the server 
  • reilable topology 
  • if nod fails it dosene affect the other nodes 
  • expenise due to the amound of cadble need 
  • extart hib or swithces might be needed depedne ont eh size of the network. 
  • if the sever crahsed the whole netowrk will fail 
  • godo secuiry- no work staioon can intertx  with each other without frit going to the server 
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ring network

  • all nodes are connted to one antoher in a circle 
  • date pass thoguth eey computer unit it reahes its destiantion 
  • netwrok has to be **** down to add a node 
  • prblom  with the entowkr can be diffculty to indeinfity 
  • if a single mechines is swited of the network dose not work 
  • transimoon of date is simple as only traole in one dierction 
  • there is no date collision 
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tree network

  • combination of bus and muilt star network 
  • commomly used in large organistaion 
  • if one cable fail it will ont affcedct the other workstaion 
  • easy to add component 
  • like the star if the center fail the whol netowkr is going to fail as well 
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mesh network

  • interent is an examle of a mesh network 
  • expemse to make due to the ammount of wires 
  • all copmuter connetd togetehr 
  • date will alway be delivred 
  • can endure high date traffic 
  • if one nodes is affected nothisng els is affcetd 
  • requies a lot of cablign 
  • expenise to matintian 
  • hard to set up 
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Components of network

  • netwrok devies 
  • interconnection devives 
  • connectros and cabling 
  • sofwear 
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network devices

  • workstaion 
  • laptop 
  • smartphone 
  • pritn serves 
  • web serves 
  • proxy serves 
  • netwrok interface card (NIC)
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Workstations are similar to normal PC’s but they do have a few differences.

For example a workstation will have

  • error correcting code memory that will correct internal data corruption as it happens. 

they may also have the flowing 

  • muilt ram ports 
  • muilpte processor socket 
  • muilt disply capabiyl 
  • high end GPU
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Print servers

a devise that will connect printer to netowrk so oter devie can use the printer print stuff

printing typciaaly accoutn for more than hald of all netwrok acivty. 

it is not economical or effecient to route all pring job  through a gernal  file sevrver and cuase the network to slo down. 

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web server

  • server that are norml host website gaming onlie and date stroage
  • web sever as stated in it name  to convey web pages to  ruqustin uses
  • web server applaion provied network acess to web pages and other intnet and intertent content. 
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proxy servers

  • is a from interanidry that will act as the requst of inforamtion 
  • is used to faciltse sercuity , adminsartive , conrto , among other possbily 
  • on corpate network a proxy server is assoted with  gateway serve that seprtae the netowkr from exteran network  (typicl  the intertent) 
  • a firewall that proetct the network form outsie intrusion 
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network interface card (NIC)

is short for network adapter that will enable  computer to connect to an exsting network such as home LAN usign an Ethernet cable 

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interconnection devices

  • repeater 
  • hub switch 
  • modem  
  • router 
  • bridge 
  • gate way 
  • wirles acess point (WAP)
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