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Reasons for global increase in tourism

People are having more holidays because

  • People have more disposable income so can can afford to go on more holidays
  • Companies give more paid holidays
  • Travel has become cheaper (particularly air) so more people can afford to go on holiday
  • Holiday providers (tour companies, hotels) use internet to sell products directly, which make them cheaper, so more people can afford to go on holiday
  • Package holiday (thompson)

Some areas are becoming more popular than they used to be because

  • Transport has been improved so it's quicker and easier to get to places eg. channel tunnel built 1995 making it easier to get to Europe, more airports to get to places like Australia that used to be reached by boat
  • Countries in more unusual destinations like Africa and the Middle East have got better at markerting themselves, so people are more aware of them
  • Many countries have invested in infrastucture for tourism (eg. better hotels) to make them more attractive to visitors eg. African countries
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Tourism- Potential of city, mountains&coastal area

Cities - London, New York, Paris, Rome

  • Culture - museums, galleries (Tate Modern, London; Le Louvre, Paris)
  • Entertainment - bars, restaurants, theatres (Broadway NY, West End London)
  • Shopping (5th Avenue, New York)
  • Monuments (Statue of Libertym NY; Big Ben London; Coliseum, Rome; Eiffel Tower, Paris)

Mountains - the Alps, the Dolomites, the Rockies

  • Beautiful scenery (eg. Whistler, Canada - 3 glaciers, waterfalls and lakes)
  • Activities such as walking, climbing (Whistler), skiing and snowboarding (ski resort La Clusaz, the Alps; Whistler Blackcomb Ski School)

Coasts - Spain ,Caribbean, Thailand

  • Beaches (eg. Playa de Palma - Majorca, Spanish Island)
  • Activities such as swimming, snorkelling, fishing, water skiing
  • Weather (30oC+ in Summer in Majorca)
  • Shopping and nightlife (Palma)
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Economic importance of tourism in MEDCs and LEDCs

  • Tourism creates jobs for local people (eg. in restaurants and hotels) which helps the economy to grow (direct jobs) Increases income of other businesses that supply the tourism industry (eg. farms that supply food to hotels).
  • This also helps the economy to grow and is an example of indirect jobs and the multiplier effect. This means tourism is important to countires in both rich and poor parts of them world
  • In 2006, tourism in France generated 35 billion euros and created 2 million jobs
  •  Poorer countries tend to be more dependant on tourism than richer ones, eg. tourism contributes 3% of the UK's GNP compared to 15% of Kenya's
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Contribution of tourism to the UK economy

  • Tourism is one of the largest industries in the UK
  • There were 32 million overseas visitors to Britain in 2008
  • The UK is popular with tourists due to countryside, historic landmarks (eg. Big Ben and Stonehenge), famous churches and cathedrals (eg. Edinburgh Castle and Buckingham Palace)
  • London is particularly popular for museums (Tate Modern), theatres (West End eg. the Lion King) and shopping (Oxford Street). It's the destination for half of all visitors to the UK.
  • In 2007, tourism contributed £114 billion to the economy and employed 1.4 million people
  • Tourism jobs forecast to increase between 2010 and 2020 from 2.65 million to 2.90 million, increasing by 250 000
  • 1/12 UK jobs either directly or indirectly supported by tourism
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Impact of extrernal factors of visitors in the UK

Weather-  bad weather can discourage tourists from visiting the UK eg. really wet summer in 2007 was blamed for drop in overseas visitors

World economy -  in times of recession people tend to cut back on luxuries like holidays, so fewer overseas visitors come to the UK. However, more UK citizens choose to holiday in the UK

Exhange rate - if it's low, the UK is cheaper to visit

Terrorism and conflictwars and terrorist threats mean people are less willing to visit affected areas. Tourism fell sharply after London bombings on 7/7/2005

Major events - big events can attract huge numbers of people. Eg. Liverpool was European capital of culture in 2008 and as a result 3.5 million people visited who hadn't been before. The 2012 Olympics generated a total tourist spend of £18.6 billion

Natural disasters- Icelands volcanic eruption in 2010 closed much of N. Europe's air space

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Butler model

1. Exploration - Small numbers of visitors attracted to the area, eg. by scenery or culture. There aren't many tourist facilities.

2. Involvement - Local people start providing facilities for tourists which attracts more visitors.

3. Development - More and more visitors come as more facilities are built. Control of tourism in the area passes from locals to big companies.

4. Consolitdation - Tourism is still a big part of the local economy but tourist numbers are beginning to level off

5. Stagnation - Visitor numbers have peaked. Facilities are no longer as good and tourists have had a negative impact on the local environment, making the area less attractive to visit.

6. Rejuvenation eg. Brighton  - if the area is rejuvenated then more visitors will come as they're attracted by the new facilities OR decline eg. Morcambe - fewer visitors come as the area is less attractive. This leads to decline as facilities shut or become run down.

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Case Study- Blackpool- coastal resort- growth

Natural features of the location:

  • Wide flat sandy beach, stretching for miles
  • Shallow, safe sea for bathing
  • Flat coastal plain- easy for building

Human factors:

  • Railway connected Blackpool to heavily populated industrialised towns in Lancashire in 1846
  • Textile Industry was booming in Lancashire, people wanted to escape the monotony of mill work and polluted urban area life and relax by the sea
  • Blackpool could be accessed for Bank Holidays by excursion trains but later once the annual holidays were introduced they spent a week there
  • By 1990 tourist infastructure was in place with the long promenade accessed by trams
    • North pier- 1863, Central Pier- 1868, South Pier- 1893
  • Winter Gardens- Indoor entertainment with theatre and ballroom 1878
  • Illuminations as a special attraction 1879
  • Tower-(158m high) 1894- iconic land mark inspired by Eiffle Tower, ballroom, circus&restaurant
  • 1899 the mile sea wall was built along the coast with promenade and the tourist cafes, shops and amusemnets in other side calles 'Golden Mile'
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Case Study- Blackpool- coastal resort- sucess

Boomed 1900-1950

7 million visitors per year

Range of accomodation all full

  • Hotels along the promenade, Guest houses behind and B&Bs towards the back of the town eg. Hotel Savoy crammed with visitors each year

Pleasure beach developed as a hugely popular fair ground with famed rides like the Big Dipper

Whole economy of town depends on Tourism

The best fish and chips and mushy peas- Harry Ramsden's restaurant on the promenade

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Case Study- Blackpool- dealing with large tourist

Huge car parks built behind promenade to reduce traffic jams

Improvements to road access M55 completed as a motorway link to the M6 reduced traffic on minor roads

M55 Motorway link road connects right up to the car parks

More money invested in Pleasure Beach and more attractions

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Case Study- Blackpool- coastal resort- decline

  • Threat of air transport and cheap package holidays to southern Spain 1960s- guarenteed sun
  • More disposible income- visit somewhere different and exciting
  • Ecomomic Decline- resort lost money
    • From 1990 to 1999- visitor no. dropped from 17mill to 11mill
    • 300 holiday flats closed
    • 200 B&Bs less than £10 a night
  • No money to invest in improvements- signs of decay, empty shops, litter, graffiti, derelict 
  • Labour Party annual conference deserted Blackpool for Manchester in 2008
  • Attracted day trippers and weekenders- no income for accommodation
  • Hen and Stag parties attracted- cheap all inclusive- no longer families
  • High 3.6% unemployment rate as cycle of decline set in
  • Plummeting house prices/ former B&Bs turned into cheap housing
  • Social issues- 40% children are fatherless, high crime rate
  • Enviromental issues- beach littered and eroded by storms- loss of sand
  • Stained pavements, litter, derelict buildings, shabby sad appearance of tourist facilities and piers
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Case Study- Blackpool- coastal resort- regeneratio

2001- efforts to smarten up tourist areas- beaches and facilities improved- sand imported from further up coast- by 2006 3 EU blue flag beaches

Illuminations- a light show stretching along the Golden Mile transformed £10mill investmennt 

Pleasure Beach added attractions- Pepsi Max- most visited attraction in the UK no. fell from 7-6mill from 2005-2006- Water World opened 2006

  • £300mill investment in last 10 years- 13mill visitors a year vs 10mill in 1990's dip
  • Redesigned- Festival headland- comedy carpet £2.6mill- art instillation- famous quotes etched in granite
  • Creatively designed spanish steps- doubles as sea wall + seating for free events like air show
  • £20mill invested Blackpool tower (now blackpool eye) and promenade
    • Observation platform at top pf tower, covered in glass, modern
    • Tower now has its own circus, ballroom, dungeon and indoor kids area- attract families
    • Improving the attractions aim for people to visit and stay and spend monet in other areas

Aims to improve blackpools image helping it recover from its downmarket drift bringing families back to blackpool- Multiplier effect- Second biggest tourist destination in the UK after London

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Case Study- Blackpool- sucess of regeneration

Lost lots of its family business by binge drinking cultures

Relies on day trippers and stag and hen dos who only stay 2 or 3 nights

Illuminations have sustained visitors into November

Promenade improved visual appearance

Seasonal employment- no work in winter

Honey Pot- areas in recreational business district between piers

Hotels lose customers

Some areas show signs of regeneration other areas of decline

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Why is tourism a global growth industry?


  • People have become wealthier- more disposable income


  • Most families have 2 working parents
  • Fewer children- less expensive to go abroad
  • Life expectancy has risen so more people are retired- more time to travel

Technology, transportation and internet

  • Travelling is quick and easy- motorways, airport expansion etc.
  • Awarness of holidays, advertising
  • Flying is now cheaper and easier to book

Expansion of holiday destinations

  • Cheap package holidays to Europe but now available to destinations world wide that offers lots of activities and sights to see
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Case Study- Jamaica

Where: Caribbean Island

1.3 million visitors in 2001

Natural attractions: white sandy beaches, constant sunshine, temp over 27c, rainforests, coral reefs

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Case Study- Jamaica- positive effects of mass tour


  • 8% of pop employed in tourism (220,000) work directly in tourism- lowers unemploment rates
  • 1.3 million visitors (2001)- provides jobs for locals and brings in money into the country
  • Contribution of 20% to GNP- reliant on tourism for the people to sustain a good standard of living
  • Torurism ependiture per person (2001)- $931
  • Ocho Rios all inclusive resort eg. sandals and Villa Golf resort over 300 rooms, very popular
  • Local businesses depend on tourism eg. food production
  • 865 cruise ship arrivals in 2002 alone


  • Wild life sanctuaries preserving species like Jamaica's national bird 
  • Beauty spots like Dunns River Falls a beautiful water fall near Ocho Rios are conserved
  • National Park helps conserve the Blue mountains and area of rain forest
  • Coral reefs realising need careful conservation measures
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Case Study- Jamaica- negative effects of mass tour


  • Toursim relies on foreign TNCs eg. foreign hotel chains like Trust House Forte and Holiday Inns and construction companies build hotels, package holidays- drains profits from country- leakage
  • Higher jobs taken by people from foreign companies
  • Local people cannot afford new facillites like golf courses and spas
  • All inslusive resorts like Ocho Rios results in people not leaving hotel grounds to suport local tradesmen and craftsmen
  • Jamaica recieves 1mill+ tourists from cruises but majority spend less than a day
  • Local farmers are tempted to sell farm land to hotel developments- food production decreases


  • Destruction of coastal enviroments for hotels- habitats lost- indangers species- visual intrusive, high rise hotels- 10 storeys Sandals, spoils natural beauty
  • Inadequate sewage treatment and disposal by resorts pollutes sea- threatens life in coral reef, travell by planes from Montego Bay and travel connections increases pollution
  • Many divers damge coral and take it home illegally, polluted murky water prevents sunlight reaching coral- cannot grow
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Case Sudy- Jamaica- Strategies reduce negatives

Establishing community tourism on the south of the island, ie treasure beach- less developed

Economic Benefits

  • Guests stay in b&bs, accomodation in rural areas or in locals homes- $ goes to the locals
  • Tourists spend monet on local businesses such as arts and crafts shops and go to local bars and restaurants- not international chains like KFC or McDonals in Montego Bay- profits USA
  • 20,000 people live in Treasure beach mainly farmers and fishermen- buy their goods
  • Appeal to more select affluent groups of tourists who will pay more and bring more income without the need for large numbers of all inclusive resorts

Enviromental Benefits

  • Small scale so little destroyed to create accomodatio a lot in Jamaican homes- limited building
  • Limiting sizes of resorts- minimise pressure on land- pollution and waste
  • Sharing culture and interacting with local people part of an education for tourists so they are aware of the pressure on the enviroment and respect it
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Case Study- Jamaica- Characteristics

Diversity of landscape- blue mountain, beaches on north coast, cockpit county, inland black river, wet lands and forests- Wide variety of activities like hiking swimming and sunbathing

Proximity to USA 'Americas back yard', Uk colonial link, commonwealth relationship- accessible to American tourists- 70%

Climate- 8 hours of guarenteed high temps, warm, dry weather when cold and wet at home. Temps don't drop below 25c

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Case study- Jamaica- all inclusive resorts


  • creates new jobs
  • Sandals employs 6500 people
  • Cultural impacts minimised by keeping tourists in all inclusive resorts
  • 90% of food used in Sandals restor is sourced locally


  • Locals see little economic benefits- wages are very low
  • Beaches are reserved for tourists- advised to stay in resort- threat of locals
  • All inclusive- little incentive to go anywhere like hire local guides, eat in local restaurants
  • Tour companies gets most of profits from tourism- little for locals
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Case Study- Jamaica- sustaining for future

Inclusive resorts should support locals- buying food and produce locally

Sandals ideas

Promote and sell tours of the community by locals

Invite local craftsmen to sell their products in hotel free of cost

Promoting local artists for nightly guest etertainment

Lessons in schools about enviromental and tourist related matters

Employing qualified local people

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Extreme environments

What is an extreme enviroment?

A hostile enviroment


-remote from civilisation

-difficult to access


An extreme enviroment is a wilderness ie an underdeveloped area stilly primarily shaped by the forces of nature

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Attractions of extreme environments

Spectacular scenery/ unique environment- first one of family and friends to visit 

Wildlife- see wildlife in its natural/ unspoilt habitat. eg. Antarctica Humpback and sperm wales and emporor penguins

Wildnerness- sense of adventure - most untouched/ unusual places- Antarctica

Extreme climate- test themselves in cold temps eg. Antarctica warmest -15c to -35c

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Increase demand for adventure holidays

Demand is growing- between 2007-8 brits going to antarctica rose by 16%

Tourists are typically around 30, unmarried, no children, high paid jobs. Or retired people

Looking to challenge themselves and take risks

Expensive only wealthy people can affoard them

Transport improvements means more extreme enviroments are accesible

Holiday entitlement has increase- April 2009 - 5-6 weeks

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The impact of Tourism on Antarctica

  • Non-native species are being brought into Antarctica- having an impact on the indigenous flora and fauna
  • Fragile vegetation grows very slowly is being trodden on
  • Litter- animals get stuck in them- killed by toxins- ruins appearance
  • Wildlife being disturbed- impact on breeding patterns
  • Pristine enviroment being polluted by the large number of cruise ships and planes coming into the ares- oil spills
  • Tourists could stand on eggs- bring in foreign species (non-native) on footwear- competes with native species
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Case Study- Antarctica- Management

IAATO- International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators


  • Tourist have to be at least 5 meters away from wildlife, give birds right of way 'penguin highways'
  • Group sizes restricted to 20 people at a time
  • Leaflet on how to not transfer non-native species 'Don't pack a pest'- education- lowers risk
  • No litter can be discharged from cruises near Antarctic waters- stored on board

Have they worked?

  • focus on protection and management and education has done alot
  • Tourists arrive by plane emmiting CO2- global warming
  • Not all tour operators have agreed to IAATO guidelines- some of the largest ships
  • Increasing numbers of vessels there is increased risk of hitting icebergs- oilspills
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Case study- Eco Tourism- Taman Negra- Malaysia

National Park in Malaysia

14,000 plant species

200 types of mammals and 3,000 species of birds

Remained unchanged for 130mill yrs making it world's oldest tropical rainforest

The Orang Asli are indigenous tribe- lived there nomadically for thousands of years

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Case Study- Taman Negara- Benefits to environment

Teman Negara is a protected area and no logging or other types of exploitation are permitted

Only 15 hectares are being used, rest of the arees is protected

The scheme is small scale/ low density so impact from tourism is limitted

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Case Study- Teman Negara- Benefits to economy

Jobs are created for the local people

Bringing money into the local economy

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Case Study- Teman Negara- Benfits to locals

  • The Orang Asli are able to continue their traditional way of life
  • Allowed to hunt, fish and cultivate crops in the Park
  • The wildlife and Parks Service has involved the local people in the development of small scale tourism in the Park
  • Jobs are created for locals eg. guides
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Case Study- Teman Negara- Sustainable development

15 hct tourist resort- brings in income and jobs

Income generated from visitors will be invested in further protecting the rest of the area, more rangers, footpaths repaired etc.

Generates foreign earning for Malaysia- development purposes

Footpaths limited to 5% of the park

No roads- must arrive by boat- reduces pollution and cutting down trees

Limited amount of accomodation

500m long walkway 40m above ground- Protects the rainforest from human damage

Walk way built be locals using local materials- sustainable

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Case Study- Teman Negara- Not sustaibable dev.

  • Even though tourism is only small scale- noise from tourists can scare animals away
  • Erosion is edvident on many of footpaths caused by trampling and heavy tropical rain then washes away loosened soil
  • The lifestyle of the Orang Asli is changing as tourists turn them into a tourist attraction and commercialises their culture and traditions
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