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  • Created by: chloe
  • Created on: 21-03-14 16:11

Factors that affect tourism

Physical factors:

  • Climate - hot, dry, sunny - Costa Del Sol - beach holidays/ cold, skiing holidays - French Alps
  • Landscape - hills, mountains good for adventures - hiking, mountain biking. Flat land - beaches, relaxing
  • Distinctive Flora and Fauna - Amazon Rainforest, Safari in Kenya

Human factors:

  • Availability of accommodation - high spec, 5* hotels e.g. The Hilton/ low budget - self catering, camping
  • Accessibility - long haul flights, convenient transfers, good road links to and from airport/hotel.
  • Entertainment - depends on tourists personal preference - night life, swimming pools, sports etc.
  • Resorts - Disneyland, Center Parcs
  • Culture and Food - different experiences.
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How and Why tourism has chnaged

Less beach holidays - People know the risks with UV radiation and links with skin cancer

More self catering - cheaper, budget holidays

More short breaks - cheaper and people go away for weekends if they're working in the week

More toursits visiting further away destinations - long haul flights are cheaper as technology has developed

More adventure holidays - skiing, bungee jumping etc.

More package holidays from travel agents

People have more paid holidays and more disposable income so can afford to go on holiday

More old people travelling - retired and have pensions

Advertisements on TV and internet - persuade and encourage tourists

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Benefits of Tourism

More people spending money

local businesses have more money - can employ more people

locals have more disposable income as they are working so can spend more, Raised GDP

Government has more money - can be invested in local area - infrastructure and facilities can be developed and maintained.

More job opportunites - less unemployment - less poverty - less crime

Area becomes more attractive to tourists and encourages more tourists and potential investors to the area.

Positive multiplier effect created.

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Negative impacts of tourism (in MEDC's)

Overcrowding - area can become a victim of its own success

- can lead to higher crime rates such as pickpocketing

- more noise pollution due to more people, anti social behaviour

-more air pollution - traffic congestion and more planes transporting tourists

- more visual pollution i.e. litter

Local culture is diluted with modern infrastructure

More demand for water - especially in hotter countries (spain) - water to drink, water plants - irrogation, hotels - washing bedding, ice in drinks

More pressure on waste disposal as more people so more waste

Although there are more job opportunities - some are temporary and low paid.

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Negative impacts of tourism (in LEDC's)

Workers are exploited - long hours, low wages, poor working conditions, no health and safety

Profits go back to MEDC's where the head office is and the area doesn't benefit.

Multi-National companies use the resources in the LEDC

Disruption to locals - conflict between locals and tourists

more air pollution, visual pollution and noise pollution

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Sustainable Tourism

Limit the number of hotels to limit the number of tourists - stop overcrowding

Less 'Happy Hours' - stop anti-social behaviour as drinks aren't cheap

Pedestrianise areas to stop congestion and air pollution/ introduce congestion charges

Use 'Grey water' to water plants (from dishwashers etc.)

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Sustainability in Cancun

Sacrificial coral reefs to save the other coral reefs from furhter damage - scubadivers

Hotels to meet new regulations for pollution and water use

protect marina environments by making them national parks.

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Ecotourism/Trophy hunting in Kenya

Trophy hunting - killing animals

sustainable source of income as people pay to kill the animals - if only the older animals are killed the younger animals can reproduce keeping it sustainable

The animals need to be culled anyway. Money spent on breeding programmes to increase population of endangered species.

However government sometimes corrupt and money doesn't get to right place.

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