Factors that affect tourism
- Climate - hot, dry, sunny - Costa Del Sol - beach holidays/ cold, skiing holidays - French Alps
- Landscape - hills, mountains good for adventures - hiking, mountain biking. Flat land - beaches, relaxing
- Distinctive Flora and Fauna - Amazon Rainforest, Safari in Kenya
- Availability of accommodation - high spec, 5* hotels e.g. The Hilton/ low budget - self catering, camping
- Accessibility - long haul flights, convenient transfers, good road links to and from airport/hotel.
- Entertainment - depends on tourists personal preference - night life, swimming pools, sports etc.
- Resorts - Disneyland, Center Parcs
- Culture and Food - different experiences.
How and Why tourism has chnaged
Less beach holidays - People know the risks with UV radiation and links with skin cancer
More self catering - cheaper, budget holidays
More short breaks - cheaper and people go away for weekends if they're working in the week
More toursits visiting further away destinations - long haul flights are cheaper as technology has developed
More adventure holidays - skiing, bungee jumping etc.
More package holidays from travel agents
People have more paid holidays and more disposable income so can afford to go on holiday
More old people travelling - retired and have pensions
Advertisements on TV and internet - persuade and encourage tourists
Benefits of Tourism
More people spending money
local businesses have more money - can employ more people
locals have more disposable income as they are working so can spend more, Raised GDP
Government has more money - can be invested in local area - infrastructure and facilities can be developed and maintained.
More job opportunites - less unemployment - less poverty - less crime
Area becomes more attractive to tourists and encourages more tourists and potential investors to the area.
Positive multiplier effect created.
Negative impacts of tourism (in MEDC's)
Overcrowding - area can become a victim of its own success
- can lead to higher crime rates such as pickpocketing
- more noise pollution due to more people, anti social behaviour
-more air pollution - traffic congestion and more planes transporting tourists
- more visual pollution i.e. litter
Local culture is diluted with modern infrastructure
More demand for water - especially in hotter countries (spain) - water to drink, water plants - irrogation, hotels - washing bedding, ice in drinks
More pressure on waste disposal as more people so more waste
Although there are more job opportunities - some are temporary and low paid.
Negative impacts of tourism (in LEDC's)
Workers are exploited - long hours, low wages, poor working conditions, no health and safety
Profits go back to MEDC's where the head office is and the area doesn't benefit.
Multi-National companies use the resources in the LEDC
Disruption to locals - conflict between locals and tourists
more air pollution, visual pollution and noise pollution
Limit the number of hotels to limit the number of tourists - stop overcrowding
Less 'Happy Hours' - stop anti-social behaviour as drinks aren't cheap
Pedestrianise areas to stop congestion and air pollution/ introduce congestion charges
Use 'Grey water' to water plants (from dishwashers etc.)
Sustainability in Cancun
Sacrificial coral reefs to save the other coral reefs from furhter damage - scubadivers
Hotels to meet new regulations for pollution and water use
protect marina environments by making them national parks.
Ecotourism/Trophy hunting in Kenya
Trophy hunting - killing animals
sustainable source of income as people pay to kill the animals - if only the older animals are killed the younger animals can reproduce keeping it sustainable
The animals need to be culled anyway. Money spent on breeding programmes to increase population of endangered species.
However government sometimes corrupt and money doesn't get to right place.