Tourism

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Growth in Tourism

growing industry- more/longer holidays

Why

More disposable income // Companies give more paid holidays- more free time // Cheaper travel (particularly air)  // Holiday providers use net to sell directly- cheaper

Some Areas Becoming More Popular

Improvements in transport (eg more airports)- quicker/ easier to get to places // Better marketing in unusual destinations (eg Middle East/ Africa)- more people aware // Many counties invest in tourism infratructure (eg more hotels)- more attractive to visitors.

Cities, Mountains & Coasts- Popular Tourist Areas

Cities- culture (museums etc), enterainment (bars, theatres etc), shopping (eg NY, Paris, Rome)   Mountains- scenery, activites: walking, climbing, ski/boarding (eg Alps, Dolomites, Rockies)  Coasts- beaches, swimming, snorkelling, fishing, water skiing (eg Spain, Caribbean, Thailand)

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Tourism- Important to Many Countries Economy

Creates jobs (eg hotels, restaurants)

Increases other buisness income that supply tourism industry 

Important to Rich and Poor parts of world

Poorer countires ten to be more dependant on tourism income that richer. 

eg Tourism- 3% UK's GNP // 15% Kenya's GNP

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UK Tourism

Popular because: countryside, historic landmarks (eg Big Ben, Stonehenge) , famous churches/ caherdrals (eg Saint Pauls), castles/ palaces (Buckingham Palace, Edinburugh Castle)

London particullarly popular- half all visitors

Factors Affecting Tourism Rates

Bad weather 

World economy- recession, cut back on luxuries, fewer overseas visitors but more citizens holiday in UK 

Exchage rate, if £ is low, more visitors, cheaper 

Terrorism/ Conflict- less visit to affected area (eg 2005 London Bombing- tourism fell) 

Major Events- eg 2012 Olympics Increased Tourism 

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Butler Model

1. Exploration- Small no. visitors attracted (eg scenery of culture), no tourist facilities

2. Involvement- Local people start providing facilities for tourists- attracts more

3. Development- More and more visitors come. More facilities built. Control of Tourism passes from locals to big companies.

4. Consolidation- Still part of local economy but tourist no.s begin to level off.

5. Stagnation- Visitor no.s peaked, facilities no longer as good, tourists have negative imapct on local environment- less attractive to visit.

Can Go One of 2 Ways

Rejuvenation- Area rejuvenated, modernised. More attractive, visitors come attracted by new facilities.    

Decline- area less attractive, fewer visitors come. Decline of area. Facilities shut ot become run-dowm                

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CASE STUDY LAKE DISTRICT- UK TOURISM 1

Reasons people go: scenery, lakes, mountains, many activities- eg bird watching, walking, boat rides, pny trekking, cultural attraction- beartrix potter museum/ wordsworth grave

-from my Geography book-

Problems

Environmental- pollution from cars // boats erode coastline // people parking on fields // noise pollution (eg Catbels)

Honey Pot Sites- historic sites get ruined // attract visitors // trod on wildlife // erode hills and paths 

Traffic- narrow, hilly roads // 89+% visitors come by car // tourists clog up roads- more accidents // roadkill // not enough car parks- park on fields- ruin them 

Pressure on Property- prices v high // 2nd homes/holiday homes make up 20% of LD- not occupied all year // holidaymakers- noise pollution, dont support local buisnesses, go to big supermarket // demand for property forces locals out of homes to find more affordable property

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CASE STUDY LAKE DISTRICT- UK TOURISM 2

Solutions

Environmental- build car parks // limiting boats and speeding limits // reinforcing paths // limit cars // signposting paths (encouriage to use less vulnerable routes). 

Honeypot SItes- reinforcing paths (hills) // signposting (hills) // routes- limiting no. of paths // out of town parking // improving roads // offers throughout the year 

Traffic Problems- country strategic roads eg dual carriageways at edge of LD // distributor roads link small towns & key tourist sites // traffic calming measures eg cattle grates // heavy lorries kept off scenic roads // stop and ride buses/ areas.

Pressure of Property- local authorities build more houses for rent // restrict who can purchase property depending on how long they will stay // developers could erect more low-cost homes


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CASE STUDY LAKE DISTRICT- UK TOURISM 3

-from revision guide- 

Strategies to cope with tourist impact

Extra Traffic- public transport being improved // campaigns to encourag epeople to use new services eg Give the Driver a Break Campaign- provides leaflets that show routes available and offers discounts at cafes and ae cruises to those with a bus/train ticket.

Erosion of Footpaths- encourage visitors to use less vunerable areas- 'resting' popular routes by changing line of paths // using more hard-wearing materials for paths eg Tarn Hows- severly eroded paths covered with soil and reseeded- main route gravelled to protect it.

Protecting wildlife and farmland- 'take litter home' signs // covered bins provided- most popular sites // campaigns- encourage visitors to enjoy countryside responsibly eg closing gates/ keep dogs on lead

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CASE STUDY LAKE DISTRICT- UK TOURISM 4

Plans to Make Sure it Keeps Attracting Tourists

  • Official tourism strategy for Cumbris- attract extra 2mil visitors by 2018- increase amount tourists spend from £1.1bil- £1.8bil
  • public transport improved- make more accesable
  • widespread advertising and marketing- make area even more well known
  • farms encourages to provide services lieke quad biking, clay pigeon shootin and archery alongside regular farming- attract more visitors
  • timeshare developments (people share ownership of propertybut stay at different times) to be increased, help bring in people all year round
  • strategies to encourage tourism in areas outide LD- relieve pressure on main touristic areas- places like West Coast, Furness and Carlisle. eg plans to regenerate ports like Whitehaven and Barrow- make more attractive to visitors
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Mass Tourism

'organised tourism for large numbers of people' eg visiting spain on package holiday

Positive Impacts

Economic- brings money into local economy // creates jobs for local people // increases income of indusries that supply tourism eg farming.

Social- jobs mean more young people likey to stay in the area // improved roads/ infrastructure for tourists also benefit locals // income fropm tourism can be reinvested in local community projects.

Environmental- income from tourism can be reinvested in protecting the environments eg Run national parks or pay for conservation work


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Mass Tourism 2

Negative Impacts

Economic- lot of profir made from tourism kept by large travel companies, rather than go into local economy.

Social- tourism jobs available to locals- bad pay/ seasonal // traffic congestion by tourists inconvineince to locals // behavior of some tourists offend locals.

Environmental- transporting lots of people long distances- greenhouse gases- global warming // can increase litter and cause pollution eg incresed sewage- river polution // destruction of habitats eg sightseeing boats can destroy coral reefs.

To reduce negative impacts- improve public transport- reduces congestion and pollution // limiting no. people visiting sensitive environments (eg coral reefs) reduces damage // providing beins- reduce litter.

Areas that rely heavily on tourism make sure they keep it coming- How: build new facilities/ imrove existing ones // reduce tourist impacts that make area less attractive // advertise/market area- attract new tourists // improve transport infrastructure // offer new activities- attract visitors who dont normally go there // make it cheaper 

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CASE STUDY JAMAICA- MASS TOURISM

  • won awards for eco- attractions (ecotourism)
  • Fancy resorts
  • staff at resorts put in effort and attention to detail
  • picturesque sunsets
  • spas speicalising in worldwide treatments 
  • very famous waterfalls- you can zipwire over some
  • film tourism (cool runnings, pirates of the caribbean)
  • home of reggae
  • fantastic beaches and cliffs
  • cliff diving
  • wildlife
  • hot climate/ nice weather
  • scuba diving
  • history of rum/ breweries
  • 3rd largest caribbean island
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CASE STUDY KENYA- MASS TOURISM

In East Africa- pver 700,000 visitors/ year- tribal culture // lots of wildlife (big five- rhino, lion, elephant, buffalo, leopard)- safaris polular // walm climate/ good weather // beautiful scenery (savannah, mountains, forest, beaches, coral reefs)

Positive Impacts

Economic- contributes 15% country's GDP // 2003- 219000 people worked in tourist industry Social- culture/ customs of ative tribes preserved- put on display for tourists.

Environmental- 23 national parks- tourists pay to get it- money towards protecting wildlife/ environment.

Negative Impacts Economic- only 15% money earned through tourism goes to locals- rest to big companies Social- some Maasai tribesmen forced off land to create national parks // some muslim people offernde by the way people dress Environmental- safari vehicles- soil erosion/ destroy vegetaion // wild animals affected (eg cheetahs changed hunting behavior too keep away from crowds) // coral reefs damaged in Malindi Marine National Park

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CASE STUDY KENYA- MASS TOURISM

In East Africa- pver 700,000 visitors/ year- tribal culture // lots of wildlife (big five- rhino, lion, elephant, buffalo, leopard)- safaris polular // walm climate/ good weather // beautiful scenery (savannah, mountains, forest, beaches, coral reefs)

Positive Impacts

Economic- contributes 15% country's GDP // 2003- 219000 people worked in tourist industry Social- culture/ customs of ative tribes preserved- put on display for tourists.

Environmental- 23 national parks- tourists pay to get it- money towards protecting wildlife/ environment.

Negative Impacts

Economic- only 15% money earned through tourism goes to locals- rest to big companies Social- some Maasai tribesmen forced off land to create national parks // some muslim people offernde by the way people dress

Environmental- safari vehicles- soil erosion/ destroy vegetaion // wild animals affected (eg cheetahs changed hunting behavior too keep away from crowds) // coral reefs damaged in Malindi Marine National Park

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CASE STUDY KENYA- MASS TOURISM 2

Negative Impacts Reduced by...

  • walking/ horseback tours promoted over vehicle safaris- preserve vegetation
  • alternate activities that are less damaging than safaris offered eg climbing/ white water rafting

Maintaining Tourism by...

  • Kenya's tourist board/ Ministry of tourism launched advertising campaign in Russia called 'Magial Kenya'
  • Kenya wildlife service planning to build airstrips in Ruma/ Mount Elgon National Parks- more accessable to tourists- spend £8mil improving roads/ airstrips to improve accessability
  • Visa fees for adults cut by 50% in 20909- scrapped for children under 16- cheaper- encourage more families to visit
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Extreme Environment Tourism

Why they're popular

  • ideal for adventure holiday settings (trekking/ river rafting)
  • people want somethig different and exciting
  • enjoy risk/danger
  • some wildlife can only be seen (eg polar bears in Arctic)

Why its Increasing

  • Improvements in transport make it easier/ quicker to travel 
  • people keen to see places while they can (eg Arctic before global warming melts it)
  • quite expensive but more people can afford to go- more dispensable income
  • adventure holidays- more pouplar- TV programs and advertising

It Can Be Damaging (eg. Himalayas)

tourists can upset fragile balance that ecosystems have- cause problems // trees cut down- provide fuel for trekkers- deforestation- destroys habitats- also fewer trees to intercept rain, more water reaches chanels, more chance of flooding // deforestation- soil erosion- roods hold soil together, soil washed in rivers raises river bed, cant hold as much water- +flooding // footpath erosion- landslides // toilets poor/ non existant- rivers polluted by sewage

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CASE STUDY ANTARCTICA- EXTEME ENVIRONMENT TOURISM

Coldest place on earth, 14milkm^2- 98% covered with ice // tourists rising each year, attracted by: scenery & wildlife

Can do sports (snowboarding, skiing), whale watching, scuba diving, air tours

Environmental Impacts

  • tourists can trample plants, disturb wildlife, drop litter
  • accidently introduce non-native species ot disease that could wipe out existing species
  • oil spillages- kill wildlife 
  • affect animal behavior

Protection Measures

Antarctic treaty- international agreemant to protect/ conserve area and its plant/animal life. 2009- parties involved agreed, only ships with >500 passangers allowed to land and only 100 max passangers on shore at once. // International Association of Antarctica Tour Operations code of conduct: Specially protected areas off limits to tourists // wildlife must not be disturbed while observing // no litter // no smoking on shore // tourists must stay in a group with qualifies guide // must not walk to fragile plant life // sewage must be biologically treated & other waste stored on board the ships

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Ecotourism

Tourism that doesn't  harm the environment and benefits the local people

It involves: Conservation- protecting/ managing environment // Stewardship- taking responsibility fro conservation - ideally should involve local people/ local organisations so locals benefit from tourism // usually small scale, small no. visitors at a time, helps keep environmental impact low // often involves wildlife viewing and walking

Benefits

  • Environmental- locals encouraged to conserve rather than use it for activities that damage because only earn money is environment isn't damaged // reduced poaching/hunting of endangered species since locals benefit more protecting them // tries to reduce use of fossil fuels eg use renewable energy sources/ local food (transported less- less fuel burnt)- better for environment, less contribution to gobal warming
  • Economic- created jobs for locals- helps local economy grow // locals not directly involved can make money selling local crafts to visitors/ supply tourist industry (eg with food)
  • For Local People- beter, more sustainable income (eg than in farming) // many ecotourism schemes fun community projects eg schools
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Ecotourism cont.

Helps Sustainable Development of Areas

  • Sustainable Development- improving quality of life for people without stopping people in the future getting what they need.
  • Ecotourism helps to develop by increasing quality of life for locals- profits used to build schools/ healthcare facilities.
  • Development is sustainable because done without damaging environment
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CASE STUDY TATAQUARA LODGE- ECOTOURISM

On island in Xingu River in Brazilian state of Para, owned by cooperative of 6 local tribes, 15 rooms- offer rishing, canoeing, wildlife viewing & forest walks // surrounded by lots of wildlife- some endangered spicies

Many Benefits

  • Environmental- lodge built from local materials (eg straw and wood) found on the ground-no cutting down trees, make lodge blend in with environment- doesnt ruin narural scenery // uses solar power to run lights- better for environment // food served all locally produced, less fossil fuel transport.
  • Economic- owned by cooperative of local tribes, not big company- money straight to local econonmy // since uses locally produced food- more money back to local economy.
  • For Local People- creates local jobs // people from nearby villages encourage to visit lodge to sell crafts/ perform traditional song/dance- provides income and preserves culture // profits from lodge used to provide decent healthcare/ education for thousands from local tribes.
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CASE STUDY TATAQUARA LODGE- ECOTOURISM

On island in Xingu River in Brazilian state of Para, owned by cooperative of 6 local tribes, 15 rooms- offer rishing, canoeing, wildlife viewing & forest walks // surrounded by lots of wildlife- some endangered spicies

Many Benefits

  • Environmental- lodge built from local materials (eg straw and wood) found on the ground-no cutting down trees, make lodge blend in with environment- doesnt ruin narural scenery // uses solar power to run lights- better for environment // food served all locally produced, less fossil fuel transport.
  • Economic- owned by cooperative of local tribes, not big company- money straight to local econonmy // since uses locally produced food- more money back to local economy.
  • For Local People- creates local jobs // people from nearby villages encourage to visit lodge to sell crafts/ perform traditional song/dance- provides income and preserves culture // profits from lodge used to provide decent healthcare/ education for thousands from local tribes.

Lodge helps sustainable dvelopment- profits got to improve healthcare/ education- increases quality of life // money genertaed without damaging environment, recourses arn't used up so sustainable, recourses available for future gens 

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