Tourism

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  • Created by: Chesca
  • Created on: 04-06-13 15:10

Tourism

Domestic tourism: people going on holiday in their own country (4 or 5 times greater than international tourism)

Top 6 tourist destination countries=

  • France, Spain, USA, China, Italy, UK

 

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Factors affecting tourism's growth

Social and economic factors:

  • People have better pensions, can afford more trips in retirement
  • Twice as much family income, most families have 2 working parents (no sexism) rather than one
  • Since 1950's people become wealthier
  • People have more lesuire time (holiday leave increased to 6 weeks)
  • Income larger, as is disposable income (amount left after housing, bills)

Development of Technology

  • Takes 24 hours to reach countries on other side of the world
  • Jumbo Jets can carry people faster and further at a small cost. Introduced in 1971.
  • Development of internet, quick easy online booking
  • The Channel Tunnel, means can be in France in half an hour
  • Nation wide Motorway, means can drive across UK in 12 hours.
  • Built airport in Cairns, made world famous city
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Factors affecting tourism's growth

Changes in society:

  • More households use cars 1971 = 31%....2000 = 72%
  • Increase in diversity of type of tourism (eco-tourism, extreme and space)
  • People have fewer children = holiday less expensive.

Political/ legal

  • Tourism developed government in poor and rich countries providing employment, earning foreign currency.
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Benefits and disadvantages of tourism for a countr

  • Provide jobs for locals (waiters, tour guides) benefits the working population
  • Foreign currency is essential in foreign exchange, allows country to buy goods and services
  • Tax visitors help to pay for water supply, electricity and roads
  • Small businesses can serve tourists themselves, includes bars and taxi's

Disadvantages tourism can provide:

  • country becomes overpopulated
  • prices of products and houses increase, local people can't afford
  • character of area, would change due to tourist development
  • enviornmental damage due to development/activities
  • tourist numbers may fluctuate/ cause problems
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External factors affecting tourism

Terrorism = 9/11 world Trade centre

Exchange rates = eurozone more expensive, due to poor exchange rates

Banking crisis = government policy of pay freezes and higher taxation, means less money to spend on luxury items.

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Tourism in the UK

Top region for domestic holidays = The Heart of England

  • easy to access to everywhere
  • home to the peak district

Domestic tourism, grew in the 1950's and 60's, due to higher pay and more time off work

  • UK seaside holidays peeked in the mid 1970's with 40 million visitors annually.
  • Britain's seaside resorts then declined as package holidays abroad became popular and affordable.
  • Small costal hotels had to house the homeless in 1980, decreasing their reputation
  • UK economy earns £80 billion every year from tourism and leisure.
  • 27.7 million overseas visitors spend £13 billion of this sum
  • Between September 2004 and December 2005, 100 hotels were opened creating jobs and income
  • London Eye, most visited paying attraction, has 3.7 million visitors a year

 

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Tourist destinations

  • Stonehenge = historic site
  • Lake district = national park
  • Thorpe park = theme park
  • London = historic city
  • Tenby = coastal resort
  • Newquay = coastal resort
  • Peak District = national park
  • Blackpool = coastal resort
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Butler tourist resort life-cycle model

Model says when: "any tourist resort starts small scale, develops into something more significant, then either goes into decline or make changes."

Exploration:

  • small number of visitors attracted by something (beaches, historic, landscape)
  • Local people haven't developed tourist services

Involvement:

  • Local people see oppurtunities and start providing accomodation, food, transport etc for visitors

Development:

  • Large companies build hotels, lesiure complexes and advertise package holidays
  • Tourist numbers rise dramatically
  • Jobs for local people grow.

 

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Butler tourist resort life-cycle

Consolidation:

  • Tourism not part of the local economy
  • Numbers of visitors steadily make employment secure
  • Some hotels and facilities become older, unattractive, tourist decrease

Stagnation:

  • Resort becomes unfashionable, numbers of visitors start to decline
  • Buisnesses changes hands and often fails

Decline or rejuvenation:

  • Decline: visitors prefer other resorts.
  • Days trips and weekenders main source of income
  • Rejuvenation: attempts made to modernise resort and attract different people with new activities
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National Parks

= large areas of mainly rural land, where development is limited by law, and the landscape is regarded as being 'rural' and 'preservable'.

  • England's parks cover 7% of it's land area. Wales cover 20%
  • Globally there are 6,000 National Parks
  • First was Peak District of Derbyshire, created in 1951
  • Land remains privately owned (by famers, Foresty Commission, National Trust)

Aim: To conserve natural and cultural landscapes while allowing access for visitors to enjoy them

Examples:

  • Lake District (upland)                           Honeypot site =
  • Peak District                            loaction attracting large numbers
  • Snowdonia (upland)                   of tourists, who place pressure
  • Pembrokeshire (lowland)          on the environment and residents
  • Norfolk broads (lowland)
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Mass tourism

= large numbers of tourists coming to one destination, because of location (skiing, beaches)

Advantages:

  • Brings jobs and reliable wages (unlike farming)
  • Allows for new infrastructure (airports, hotels, power supplies)
  • Allows for new lesiure facilities

Disadvantages:

  • Activity may be seasonal (will have to have different jobs)
  • Package holidays don't benefit locals
  • Few local people are well paid
  • Infrastructure needs land, locals have to sell land, local food production decreases
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Extreme environments

Involves dangerous landscape, with difficult climate and is sparsely populated

Want a thrill = rock climbing, white-water rafting

Paragliding done on South Downs Sussex

Include = mountains, deserts, rainforests

Involves risk

Target market often 30 years old, as they have a good income to pay for the expensive trip.

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Eco-tourism

= enviornmentally friendly tourism

Stewardship = personal responsibility for looking after things (environment) development is planned sustainably

Conservation = stewardship on a smaller scale, careful and planned resources, to manage and maintain the natural environment for future generations. (people feel more involved)

Ecotourism......caters for a small but growing niche market of environmentally aware tourists

  • For those who want to experience the natural environment (trekking, bird-watching)
  • Eat local food, stay in basic lodging, use local guides.
  • High pricing


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Dubai

  • Small state, one of the United Arab Emirates
  • Located on the Arabian Coast neighbouring Saudi Arabia
  • Easily accesible from Europe, Asia, Africa.
  • Hotel revenue up by 22% in the first quarter of 2008 compared to the same time last year
  • 2.8 million people visited in 2000. 5.4 million in 2004
  • Famous for duty free shopping and shopping malls (prices are reasonable)
  • Sightseeing is popular - market, zoo. dhow building yards
  • Watersports = diving popular
  • Excursions to see wildlife and desert
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