Domestic tourism: people going on holiday in their own country (4 or 5 times greater than international tourism)
Top 6 tourist destination countries=
- France, Spain, USA, China, Italy, UK
Factors affecting tourism's growth
Social and economic factors:
- People have better pensions, can afford more trips in retirement
- Twice as much family income, most families have 2 working parents (no sexism) rather than one
- Since 1950's people become wealthier
- People have more lesuire time (holiday leave increased to 6 weeks)
- Income larger, as is disposable income (amount left after housing, bills)
Development of Technology
- Takes 24 hours to reach countries on other side of the world
- Jumbo Jets can carry people faster and further at a small cost. Introduced in 1971.
- Development of internet, quick easy online booking
- The Channel Tunnel, means can be in France in half an hour
- Nation wide Motorway, means can drive across UK in 12 hours.
- Built airport in Cairns, made world famous city
Factors affecting tourism's growth
Changes in society:
- More households use cars 1971 = 31%....2000 = 72%
- Increase in diversity of type of tourism (eco-tourism, extreme and space)
- People have fewer children = holiday less expensive.
- Tourism developed government in poor and rich countries providing employment, earning foreign currency.
Benefits and disadvantages of tourism for a countr
- Provide jobs for locals (waiters, tour guides) benefits the working population
- Foreign currency is essential in foreign exchange, allows country to buy goods and services
- Tax visitors help to pay for water supply, electricity and roads
- Small businesses can serve tourists themselves, includes bars and taxi's
Disadvantages tourism can provide:
- country becomes overpopulated
- prices of products and houses increase, local people can't afford
- character of area, would change due to tourist development
- enviornmental damage due to development/activities
- tourist numbers may fluctuate/ cause problems
External factors affecting tourism
Terrorism = 9/11 world Trade centre
Exchange rates = eurozone more expensive, due to poor exchange rates
Banking crisis = government policy of pay freezes and higher taxation, means less money to spend on luxury items.
Tourism in the UK
Top region for domestic holidays = The Heart of England
- easy to access to everywhere
- home to the peak district
Domestic tourism, grew in the 1950's and 60's, due to higher pay and more time off work
- UK seaside holidays peeked in the mid 1970's with 40 million visitors annually.
- Britain's seaside resorts then declined as package holidays abroad became popular and affordable.
- Small costal hotels had to house the homeless in 1980, decreasing their reputation
- UK economy earns £80 billion every year from tourism and leisure.
- 27.7 million overseas visitors spend £13 billion of this sum
- Between September 2004 and December 2005, 100 hotels were opened creating jobs and income
- London Eye, most visited paying attraction, has 3.7 million visitors a year
- Stonehenge = historic site
- Lake district = national park
- Thorpe park = theme park
- London = historic city
- Tenby = coastal resort
- Newquay = coastal resort
- Peak District = national park
- Blackpool = coastal resort
Butler tourist resort life-cycle model
Model says when: "any tourist resort starts small scale, develops into something more significant, then either goes into decline or make changes."
- small number of visitors attracted by something (beaches, historic, landscape)
- Local people haven't developed tourist services
- Local people see oppurtunities and start providing accomodation, food, transport etc for visitors
- Large companies build hotels, lesiure complexes and advertise package holidays
- Tourist numbers rise dramatically
- Jobs for local people grow.
Butler tourist resort life-cycle
- Tourism not part of the local economy
- Numbers of visitors steadily make employment secure
- Some hotels and facilities become older, unattractive, tourist decrease
- Resort becomes unfashionable, numbers of visitors start to decline
- Buisnesses changes hands and often fails
Decline or rejuvenation:
- Decline: visitors prefer other resorts.
- Days trips and weekenders main source of income
- Rejuvenation: attempts made to modernise resort and attract different people with new activities
= large areas of mainly rural land, where development is limited by law, and the landscape is regarded as being 'rural' and 'preservable'.
- England's parks cover 7% of it's land area. Wales cover 20%
- Globally there are 6,000 National Parks
- First was Peak District of Derbyshire, created in 1951
- Land remains privately owned (by famers, Foresty Commission, National Trust)
Aim: To conserve natural and cultural landscapes while allowing access for visitors to enjoy them
- Lake District (upland) Honeypot site =
- Peak District loaction attracting large numbers
- Snowdonia (upland) of tourists, who place pressure
- Pembrokeshire (lowland) on the environment and residents
- Norfolk broads (lowland)
= large numbers of tourists coming to one destination, because of location (skiing, beaches)
- Brings jobs and reliable wages (unlike farming)
- Allows for new infrastructure (airports, hotels, power supplies)
- Allows for new lesiure facilities
- Activity may be seasonal (will have to have different jobs)
- Package holidays don't benefit locals
- Few local people are well paid
- Infrastructure needs land, locals have to sell land, local food production decreases
Involves dangerous landscape, with difficult climate and is sparsely populated
Want a thrill = rock climbing, white-water rafting
Paragliding done on South Downs Sussex
Include = mountains, deserts, rainforests
Target market often 30 years old, as they have a good income to pay for the expensive trip.
= enviornmentally friendly tourism
Stewardship = personal responsibility for looking after things (environment) development is planned sustainably
Conservation = stewardship on a smaller scale, careful and planned resources, to manage and maintain the natural environment for future generations. (people feel more involved)
Ecotourism......caters for a small but growing niche market of environmentally aware tourists
- For those who want to experience the natural environment (trekking, bird-watching)
- Eat local food, stay in basic lodging, use local guides.
- High pricing
- Small state, one of the United Arab Emirates
- Located on the Arabian Coast neighbouring Saudi Arabia
- Easily accesible from Europe, Asia, Africa.
- Hotel revenue up by 22% in the first quarter of 2008 compared to the same time last year
- 2.8 million people visited in 2000. 5.4 million in 2004
- Famous for duty free shopping and shopping malls (prices are reasonable)
- Sightseeing is popular - market, zoo. dhow building yards
- Watersports = diving popular
- Excursions to see wildlife and desert