Growth in tourism
Why has tourism grown in the last 60 years?
- More disposable income
- Companies give more paid holiday
- Travel is easily accessible and cheap
- Package holidays make it easier
Why do particular areas become more popular?
- Improvements in transport
- More unusual destinations have to market themselves as tourist attractions to increase
- Many countries have invested in infrastructure for tourism to be more attractive
What sort of place attracts tourists?
- Cities for culture, entertainment and shopping
- Coast for beaches, swimming, snorkelling, fishing and water skiing
- Mountains for scenery, walking, climbing, skiing and snowboarding
Tourism in the economy
Why is tourism important to the economies of countries?
- It creates jobs for the local people, this helps the economy to grow
- It increases the income of businesses which support the tourism industry, also helping the economy to grow
- Tourism in France has generated 35 billion euros in 2006 and created 2,000,000 jobs
- Tourism is important to both richer and poorer countries
- However, it is the poorer countries which are more dependant on the income
-In the UK it contributes for about 3% of the UKs GNP
-In Kenya it contributes to 15% of their GNP
Does tourism make a big contribution to the UK economy?
- Yes, in 2008 there were 32 million overseas visitors
- The UK is popular because of its countryside, historic landmarks, churches and cathedrals as well as castles and palaces
- London is the destination for half of the tourists to the UK, it attracts people because of its museums, theatres and shops
- In 2007 tourism contributed £114 billion to the economy and employed 1.4 million people
What factors affect the number of tourists to the UK?
- Weather- bad weather can discourage visitors
- World economy- in times of recession people tend to cut back on holidays
- Exhnage rate- the value to the pound of the visitor's own currency, if the value is low then it encourages tourists
- Major events- events such as the olympics contribute a massive boost in the number of visitors
The tourist area life cycle model
EXPLORATION: Small numbers of visitors are attracted to an area e.g. by the scenery or culture but there are not many tourist facilities
INVOLVEMENT: Local people begin to provide facilities for tourists which attracts more visitors
DEVELOPMENT: More and more visitors arrive as more facilities are built. Control of the tourism passes on to larger companies
CONSOLIDATION: Tourism is still a big part of the local economy, but tourist numbers are beginning to level off
STAGNATION: Visitor numbers have peaked. Facilities are no longer as good and tourists have a negative impact on the environment making the area less attractive to visit
REJUVENTATION or DECLINE
Rejuvination-if the area is rejuvenated more visitors will come
Decline- fewer visitor come so facilities shut or become run-down
Reasons for tourism growth
Tourism has increased because people now have a lot more money to spend. The average wage in the UK is £20,000 and people use the spare money to go on holiday.
In the UK people also have now at least 4 weeks holiday a year whilst in 1950 they would only have two weeks.
People are also now living longer which means when they are retired they are able to go on many holidays. In the UK the average life expectancy is 80 years.
It is also now easier for people to travel by Easy Jet and the Channel Tunnel.
Having the Euro means that people can use the same currency in a number of countries which makes it easier.
Package holidays organised by companies such as Thomas Cook mean that people are not worried about goin to far away places.
Companies such as Lastminte.com mean that people can easily book on the internet
When people go on holiday, they will generally spend money on flights, accomodation, food and entertainment.
This money goes to the package tour company, the airline and the local people. If people book an ''all-inclusive'' holdiay, little money trickles down to the local people.
However, if people book directly and go outside to eat, the tourist dollar has a greater impact on the locals. In places like the Caribbean, people do not leave the hotels apart from organised tours meaning there is little oppurtunity for the local people to benefit from the tourists.
However 35 million tourists visit times square every year. These people will be spending money in shops like Macy's and on Broadway.
The economic importance of tourists also depends on security. The riots in Kenya in 2008 meant that it lost its tourist income.
The importance also depends on the government. Cuba is an island but is only just developing its tourist industry as the communist government is changing its views
Blackpool - reasons for growth
In the 1850s, Blackpool was a small village by the sea with a population of only 300. Today it is one of the most important sea side resorts in the UK with over 8 million visits each year.
It grew initially because of the railway station which opened in 1846. People in the manufacturing towns of the North of England were given one weeks holiday per year
They were able to easily book a holiday in Blackpool and travel there by train.
The town's people built piers which had dance halls and other entertainments
In 1880, the streets in Blackpool were given electric lights and people travelled to see the illuminations
Today, Blackpool is important for people on shorter holidays and conferences
Blackpool - management
Blackpool is managed by the local council which spend money on street cleaning so that the area is attractive.
They have also provided trams to cut down on traffic congestion, the new park and ride scheme also cuts down on numbers
The beach is important to visitors so they have gained the EU blue flag which shows tourists that the bathing water is good quality
Life guards are also provided to keep tourists safe.
Also, the beach itself has to be protected from erosion, therefore the groynes and the sea walls are looked after.
They also have reduced the amount of sand that companies can take from the near by beaches
However a problem for blackpool is that it is often wet. People can easily fly to hot climates , therefore the council has encouraged companies to build indoor facilities such as to conference centres
Bali - positive economic and environmental effects
Tourism started in Bali in the 1970s
- It has brought jobs and money to the island, people have the chance to learn new skills
- Bali is now the rischest island in Indonesia because of the tourist dollar
- The government is encouraging local people to lease land to the developers rather than sell it. This means that the local people can maintain control over the developments and the economy will benefit more
- The government has been able to use the tourist income to improve the infrastructure and build schools meaning the they will be able to earn more money in the future
- Tourist income means that the places like Sangeh Monkey Forest are preserved with its macaque monkeys and nutmeg trees that grow over 40 metres high
- The Bali Barat National Park is also paid for partly by tourists
- Most of the rest of Bali is used for agriculture and tourism therefore preserved forests keep the biodiversity of the landscape and Bali's paddy fields give it a unique landscape
Bali- negative economic and environmental effects
Bali has over 1 million tourists a year though this doesn't come without a cost: Economy:
- As young people realise thay can make money in tourism, they are leaving agriculture to find work in the tourist industry creating an imbalance in the economy which meant that it suffered in the bombings in 2002 and 2005 reduced tourist numbers
- It has become over-dependent on tourists, however a large proportion of the money from tourists does not stay in Bali - it goes to the package tour companies and the airlines
- The jobs tourism provides are mainly low paid such as waitressing. Local people have few oppurtunities for management positions in the hotels
- Rice paddy fields have been drained to provide land for the hotels affecting the hydrological cycle. 20% of the sewage on the island is not treated and flows straight into the sea
- This damages the coral reefs. Tourists also urinate in the sea which alters the pH balance and kills the coral
- Uneducated tourists in the Sangeh Monkey Forest have altered the behaviour of the monkeys by petitng and feeding them
- The overdevelopment at Kuta beach has been ruined from the concrete buildings
Why are tourist attracted to mt Everest?
Mount Everest prvides the location for the ultimate climbing and trekking holiday
Tourists are lured by the glamour of standing on top of the world at 8,848 metres high
People want to match the romance of Edmund Hillary who first climbed the mountain in1953
Whilst it is the highest mountain in the world, beginners can climb it given the correct conditions and a trained guide
The safety record is much better than other mountains like K2 where there are ice pillars
Air travel means that it is much easier to reach Nepal
Safety equipment is also easier and cheaper than it was in the past
What are the impacts of visiting Everest?
- Tourism brings money to Kathmandu and the local people earn money acting as sherpas. At the foot of the mountain, local people run restaurants and internet cafes
- This provides money for their families, otherwise the only money people can earn is in farming
- This is a very difficult life, the villages in Khumba Valley are very wealthy compared to local standards
- However, people consider that the buildings near the mountain are unnatural and create an eye-sore. There is no organised waste disposal on the mountain which is littered with used medical supplies and oxygen canisters
- Lower parts of the mountain have been deforested to provide fuel for hot showers for the tourists
- The World Wildlife Fund considers that only 20p by the tourist goes to the local people
- This means that the local people struggle to manage this extreme environment
Ecotourism - Asa Wright Nature Centre
The Asa Wright Nature Centre in Trinidad is a former plantation of nearly 200 acres which is run sustainably
The centre's aim is to acquire and preserve the natural forests
This is funded by eco-tourism
They have now been able to buy some primary forest which will be preserved for the future
Tourists are able to visit only 10% of the estate on 5 designated trails
Therefore, the biodiveristy of the forest is preserved and little wildlife is disturbed
They also educate cruise ship visitors about the rainforest so they will be more involved in conservation when the return home
The Asa Wright Nature Centre in Trinidad is a former plantation of nearly 200 acres which is run by 60 local staff in the Arima Valley
They are trained to manage the rainforest and are given interest free loans to build houses
This is funded by eco-tourism
The food served in the centre is either grown on the estate or purchased from local people
This provides more jobs
People learn skills fromworking
This means that the tourist dollar stays in the area