Religion + development
God and globalisation in India. ( Part of BRIC economy)
Prosperity in Indias middle class from globalisation.
Nanda ' Book god and globalisation. 85% population in India are Hindu.
Hinduism and consummerism.
Globalisation has caused scientifically educated people.
It / Pharmaceuticals + Biotechnology sectors- Secularisation theory suggests these people would abandon religion.
Nanda observes this class -> they contribut to believe in supernatural. She says its becoming fashionable to be religious.
- Survey was conducted, and found Indians 30% more religious and 5% less in last 5 years.
> increasing religiosity is result of ambivilance to new found wealth.
X rejects exitential security as they arent poor.
It all comes from Traditional hinduism mixed with materialism. New Preachers saying desire isnt bad but they should be more motivated by earning.
Consumerism can be spiritually balanced.
Nanda -> Global attitude survey 93% of Indians agreed. " our people arent perfect but our culture is superior to others"
Hinduism has become Indias civil religion! - also affects public as state is influence by religion.
Eg Hindu Astrology (science) is taught as a subject.
Sale of Cow urine to cure AIDS + TB as cow is seen as being sacred.
Capitalism in East Asia- success of capitalism in east asia has led to religion being aligned with calvaninsts. eg worshipping for reward in after ' Protestant ethic'
Pentecostalism in Latin America
Evangilical faith -> reliability of the Bible.
Need for transformation to individual through faith of Jesus.
Berger -> Pentacostalism acts as functional equivalent to WEBERS 'protestant ethic'
Encourages development of capitalism. - encourages members to prossper and become mobile. Berger + Weber agree religious ideas alone wont produce economic development.
-> Natural resources are needed!
Pentecostalism: Global + local
Fundamentalism and cosmopolitanism.
Giddens -> Fundamentalists are traditionalists that want religion to turn back to basics fundamentals of faith.-> they say scriptures answer everything. (avoid contact with others)
- sees fundamentalism grow as a reaction of globalisation.
* it is a retreat to faith based answers away from globalising world that needs rational reasons.
Cosmopolitanism -> tollerant of others + open to new ideas.
Giddens calls this reflexive thinking.
People are required to justify views with rational evidence rather than sacred texts.
- lifestyle is personal choice.
Cosmopolitanism is all about personal meaning + improvement.
Although Fundamentalists reject modernity, they use modern methods to spread beliefs (tv/internet) - Electronic church.
Religious fundamentalism 2
Fundamentalists versions of other religions.- responses to post modernity.
Postmodern society brings freedom of choice + uncertainty which is the opposite to previous tradition.
Manuel Castells -> 2 responses to postmodernity.
Resistant identity -> defence reaction to those who feel threatened and so retreat to fundamentalism.
Project identity -> response of people who engage in social movements eg feminism + environmentalism.
Beckford-> they are fixiated on fundamentalism and ignore other movements such as Catholocism.
Giddens description of fundamentalism as defensive reaction to modernity ignores reinventing tradition is reflexive.
Monotheism + fundamentalism
Bruce -> main cause to fundamentalism is that globalising world threatens beliefs + lifestyle.
Fundamentalism is monotheistic religions (only believe in one god) eg christianity,islam,judaism.
-Polytheistic religions is religious believing in many gods (hinduism) - unlikly to produce fundamentalism.
Monotheistic based on a single text (Bible, Qura'n) gives specific rules to follow.
Polytheistic lack an authority text therefore different interpretations are developed.
Fundamentalism can come from different origins.
*In the West - fundamentalism is often a reaction to change in society. eg New Christian Right being against abortions, divorce, gender equality.
*In the Third World - fundamentalism often reaction to change outside society. eg Islamic revolution in IRAN.
Bruce-> Function of religion is cultural defense.
Poland -> 1945-1989 communists ruled. Catholic Church was suppressed.
Church lent active support to solidarity free trade union that created a fall in the comunism.
Church then had involvement over politics.
Western capitalist powers + oil companies influenced Iran and overthrew the democratic government.
- In 70's/80s policy of modernisation + Westernisation. Banned viel + replacing muslim calender.
Modernisation widens gap between poor + Rich.
Religion and the clash of civilisations
Global conflict -> 9/11 by islamists.
-> bombings in London / Madrid / Bhali
Neo-conservative- Samuel Huntington
Conflicts have grown since collapse of communism.
Huntington - 7 civilisations - each have common cultural background.
- linked to major religion.
Shared religion creates social cohesion within civilisations. + CONFLICT.
* Globalisation makes communication between civilisations easier increasing liklihood of conflict.
Religious differences create "us + them" relationships. - deeply rooted unlike politics.
'The West and the Rest.' - under threat from Islam in particular.
West should reassert its Christian Identity.
Criticisms of Religion and clash of civilisations.
Jackson -> assumes all Eastern people are Muslims and untrustworthy. (steriotypical)
Horrie + Chippindale -> see clash of civilisations as misleading neo-conservative ideology.
-It portrays Islam as the Enemy.
- Only small groups are interested in 'Holy war' on the West.
Western attitudes to new ideology is liberal to society changes but Easter (Muslim) is more traditional.