Topic 5 - Organizations of School, Home and Environment

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  • Created by: Aimee
  • Created on: 20-11-12 15:21

I.C.T. Methods Available

OMR (Optical Mark Recognition)

  • Works by teachers shading in boxes on forms
  • Forms are batched together
  • Sent for reading by an optical mark reader
  • Reports can be produced from the system


  • It is easier to check students' progress and make a balanced report
  • It is quicker to shade in boxes than it is to write an individual report on each student


  • It may not say everything in the reports
  • Teachers might not want to get a computer to analyse the students progress
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Smart/Swipe Cards

Smart Cards

  • Uses a chip
  • Chip is read by a reader to record attendance
  • Are open to abuse by students (you could give your card to someone else)

Swipe Cards

  • Plastic cards like a credit card
  • Contain a magnetic strip with data on it
  • Students swipe their card through a reader
  • Their attendance is recorded 
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Biometric Methods

Biometric - a property of the human body such as fingerprints or a pattern on the retina that can be used to identify a person. Biometric methods include Fingerprinting, Retinal scanning, Face recognition.


  • There is nothing, such as a card, for a student to forget
  • You have to be there to register, so no one else can do it for you and it cannot be altered by students
  • Performed in real time so the system knows exactly who has registered an when


  • Biometric systems are expensive
  • There are privacy issues. Some people object to fingerprinting systems
  • Total reliance on the ICT systems
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Management Information Systems (MIS)

An ICT system supplies information that helps give managers and others the information they need for them ro make effective decisions

  • Supplies information to managers and other staff
  • Enables them to make effective decisions

Examples of uses for MIS in schools

  • To work out how many students will be in the new Year 7 and to allocate them into forms
  • To decide whether a new teacher should be employed
  • To work out the best way of allocating teachers and classrooms
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Management Information Systems (MIS) Cont.

Advantages of MIS

  • They reduce the workload for teachers in the classroom and in the school office
  • They can provide up-to-date information for parents
  • They can support decision making for school managers
  • They can tackle truancy effectively
  • They can be used to plan timetables

Disadvantages of MIS

  • The software is expensive to buy
  • Student data is personal, so there must be no unauthorised access
  • The software is complex, so all staff would need training
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Data Logging

Data logging is where readings are taken regularly over a period of time using sensors. The main features of data logging are:

  • The readings are taken automatically - there is no need for a human to be present. This means that is it much cheaper than employing a person to do this.
  • You can set the logging period - this is the total time over which the readings will be collected

Features of Data Logging

  • You can set the logging rate (also called the logging interval) - this determines how often the readings are taken. For example, in an experiment to investigate the cooling of boiling water, you might decide to set the logging rate to be every minute
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Data Logging Cont.

Advantages of data logging

  • Readings always taken at exactly the right time
  • Do not need anyone to take reading
  • No human error when taking readings
  • The system does not forget to take a reading
  • Readings can be taken faster
  • Can be suited in inhospitable places e.g. north pole
  • Readings can be taken 24/7

Disadvantages of data logging

  • Equipment malfunction can cause wrong readings
  • Equipment is expensive
  • Training is needed to have expertise in setting up the equipment
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  • Sensors are used to detect and measure physical quantities

Examples of sensors-

  • Temperature/heat sensors
  • Light sensors- detect the brightness of light. Can be used to see how light levels can affect the growth of a plant also can be used for lights that come on automatically when it gets dark
  • Sound sensors- measure the loudness of a sound
  • Pressure sensors- barometric pressure sensors measure air pressure
  • Humidity sensors- measure moisture in the air
  • Passive infrared sensors (PIRs)/movement sensor- these are the sensors used in schools and home to detect movement
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Control Systems


  • The main components of a control system are:
  • Sensors: whcih are the input devices that send data to the computer/processor
  • Computer/processor: uses a control program to decide what action to take when it recieves data from the sensor
  • Output device: such as lights, heaters, sprinkler systems, controlled by signals from the control system
  • Control systems work by using a series of 0's and 1's. A sensor will detect a particular occurence and respond appropriately. These are known as input bits
  • Out bits control output devices and again use 0's and 1's
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Control Systems Cont.

Advantages of control systems

  • It can operate continuously 24/7
  • It is cheaper- no need to pay wages
  • It can work in dangerous places (e.g. a robot to remove a bomb)
  • It is easy to change the way the device works by re-programming it
  • It is more accurate than humans
  • It can react quickly to changes in conditions

Disadvantages of control systems

  • The initial cost of equipment is too high
  • The equipment can go wrong
  • Fewer people are needed, so leads to unemployment
  • If there is a power cut the equipment will fail
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I.C.T. For Weather Forecasting


  • In weather forecasting systems data is collected by sensors and sent to the computer processor/processor for processing. The information is then displayed in a variety of ways
  • Using icons
  • Using text
  • Using numbers
  • This information is usually output on screen

Sensors used for the collection of weather data

  • Data from weather forecasting systems comes from sensors:
  • Heat/temperature sensors. Pressure sensor. Used to record atmospheric temperature
  • Rain sensors. Used to measure rainfall
  • Wind speed and wind direction sensors
  • Light sensors, to record hours of sunshine
  • Humidity sensors, to detect moisture in the air
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I.C.T. For Weather Forecasting Cont.

Advantages of ICT Based Weather Forecasting Systems

  • Data can be collected automatically
  • Data is collected at exactly the correct time, mistakes are not made when taking readings
  • Weather data can be collected from remote and inhospitable locations
  • Data can be transmitted using radio/satellite communication. Output can be in different formats e.g video, audio etc

Disadvantages of ICT Based Weather Forecasting Systems

  • Equipment is expensive
  • Malfunction of equipment may lead to incorrect forecasts
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