Religion as a conservative force.
Religion as a conservative force.
conservative as it defends traditional customes + morale views.
It functions to conserve + preserve things to stabilise society.
Religious conservative beliefs.
Most religions oppose changes that give freedom.
Eg catholics - divorce/ sex/abortion/ gays.
Traditional values -> men are head of the family.
Brides vows -> 'to love honour and obey' (Brides can now drop this.)
-> religion + consensus- maintains social solidarity.( creates value consensus.)
-> religion + patriarchy- feminists see religion as ideology that legitimates patriarchy.
-> religion + capitalism- prevents social change by legitimating exploitation. creates false consciousness.
Weber: Religion as a force for change.
Weber wrote 'the protestant ethic+ the spirit of capitalism'.
Calvanism (protestantism) had religious beliefs that brought social change.
Weber noticed old capitalism was about greed + wealth which was spend on luxuries.
-> now capitalism is based on efficiency of workforces to generate more profit.
'Persuit of profit' -> spirit of capitalism -> elective affinity.
Pre-destination -> god pre-determines 'the elect' who would be saved.
Divine transcendence-> salvation panics. ( suggested by calvanists) No one would know if they are saved or not. Couldnt do anything to change gods choice.
Asceticism -> avoiding excess in order to dovote one to god.
The idea of vocation or calling-> other worldly asceticism. Calvanist idea of shunning luxury, working long hours as idleness being a sin.
Making people more wealthy. -> supposedly a sign of Gods good favour that they will be saved.
Salvation panics- which is contradictory to not knowing gods will.
People then reinvested in their businesses which grew -> The new spirit of capitalism.
Evaluation of Calvinist beliefs
Tawney argues there has been a technological change, not religious ideas that has caused to birth of capitalism.
Weber has been criticised as capitalism didnt develop in every country that were calvanist.
Religion and social protest.
American civil rights movement.
Bruce - used case studies!
Blacks had no political/ legal rights.
Black clergy gave support + moral legitimacy to civil rights- they shamed the white clergy because of shared christian values of equality.
Churches were meeting places - a sanctuary of threat from violence.
Rituals were a source of unity in the face of oppression.
Religion provides motivation + support.
* taking morale high ground 'love thy neighbour'
Challenging dissent eg Martin Luther Kings funeral.
Acting as honest broker- Churches gave respect to both sides. Religion stands above conflict. * Mobilising public opinion - Campaigning as a minority creating a majority.
Bruce sees civil rights movement as religion helping social change.
Achieved change by shared valued.
Shamming those in power.
The new christian right.
Pollitically + morally conservative protestant fundamentalist movement.
They seek nothing less than ' to take America back to god.'
-> makes abortion/ homosexuality + divorce illegal.
Campaigns for teachings of 'creationism'.
Recruit by televangilism -> largely unsuccessful.
-campaigners find it difficult to co-operate with others with different beliefs.
Failed due to the diversity of society.
Marxism, religion and change
Marxism, religion and change.
Religious ideas can have relative autonomy. -force for change/ force for stability.
Marx says religion is heart of the heartless world.
Block -> principle of hope. / Religion can inhibit change + conflict.
Religion recognises positive + negative influences of social change.
Milinarium movements + Gramsci religion and hegemo
Milinarium movements. - christ will come to earth a second time for a thousand years before judgement day.
Mainly poor people follow this as promised imediate improvement.
Melanesia - cargo cults / islanders felt wrongly deprived.
Gramsci = religion and hegemony
Hegemony is the way the ruling class use ideas such as religion to maintain social control.
-> ideological demonation of society.
Counter hegemony -> the way poor people see society should be organised.
Gramsci- says religion can challenge + support ruling class.
* religion can help workers see through hegemony to offer a better worlds. ( clergy acting as trade unions)