Topic 7

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  • Created by: zoeantill
  • Created on: 05-05-16 09:24


joins bone to bone

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joins bone to muscle

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contracts to reverse movement

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contracts to cause extension of the joint

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antagonistic muscle pairs

muscles that work together so that when one contracts the other relaxes

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synovial fluid

thick liquid found in joints, acts as a lubricant

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multi nucleated

eukaryotic cell that has more than one nucleus

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muscle fibres

cells composed of many myofibrils that contract when stimulated

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threadlike fibrils that make up the contractial part of the muscle fibres

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made up of two types of proteins

- actin 

- myosin

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thin filament that together with myosin functions in muscle contractions

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thick filament, that is for elastic and contractional properties in a muscle

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relaxed and contracted muscle sarcomere

Photo (

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sliding filament theory

1. Ca ions attach to troponin, causing it to move

2. Tropomyosin moves due to troponin

3. exposes myosin binding sites

4. myosin heads create cross bridges with actin

5. ADP and P on myosin heads are released 

6. myosin changes shape causing the head to move forward

7. ATP binds to myosin head causing it to deattach

8. ATPase on myosin head turns ATP back to ADP and P

9. Hydrolysis causes a change in the shape of the head and it returns to its normal position

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respiration (glycolysis)

Photo (

Key words

- pyruvate: 3 carbon sugar 

- coenzyme NAD: 2 hydrogen atoms are removed and taken out by NAD

- substrate level phosphorylation: phosphate from the intermmediate compound is trandferred to ADP to create ATP

- cytoplasm: site of glycolysis

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respiration (link reaction and kreb cycle)

Photo (

key words

- decarboxylation: CO2 is released as waste product

- dehydrogenated: 2 hydrogens are removed to produce NADH

- inner mitochondrial membrane: site of kreb cycle

- matrix of mitochondria: site of link reaction

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respiration (electron transport chain)

1. reduced coenzyme carries H and electron to the ETC 

2. electron pass from one carrier to another in a series of redox reaction 

3. H move across the inner mitochondrial membrane creating a H concentration gradient in the intermembrane space

4. H diffuse back into the mitochondrial matrix down the electrochemical gradient

5. H diffusion allows ATPase to catalyse ATP synthesis 

6. electrons and H recombine to form hydrogen atoms which combine with oxygen to form water


- oxidative phosphorylation: oxygen acts as the final carrier and it synthesises ATP 

- chemiosmosis: movement of ions across a semi permeable membrane down a concentratin gradient

- ATPase:enzyme that catlyses the decompostion of ATP to ADP and P, and vice versa

- inner mitochondrial membrane: site of ETC

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anaerobic respiration

Lactate fermentation

Photo (

Alcoholic fermentation

Photo (

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creatine phosphate

released at start of exercise and is a substance stored in muscles thta can be hydrolysed to release energy, this energy can be used to regenerate ATP from ADP and P

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vo2 max

the maximum/optimum rate at which the heart, lungs and muscles can effectively use oxygen during exercise

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maintenance of oxygen supply

- increasing cardiac output

- faster rate of breathing

- deeper breathing

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cardiac output

cardiac output (CO) = stroke volume (SV) x heart rate (HR)

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stroke volume

volume of blood pumped out of the left ventricle each time the ventricle contracts measured in cm3

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heart rate

The number of heartbeats per unit of time, usually per minute. The heart rate is based on the number of contractions of the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). The heart rate may be too fast (tachycardia) or too slow (bradycardia).

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control of heart rate

1. electrical impulses from the SAN spread across the atria walls causing contraction

2. impluses pass to the ventricles via the AVN 

3. impulses pass down the purkyne fibres to the heart apex

4. impulses spread up through the ventricle walls causing contraction from the apex upwards. Blood is squeezed into the arteries.

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used to measure electrical activity

when there is a change in polarisation of the cardiac muscle a small electrical current can be detected at the skins surface, the ECG measures this 

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P wave

depolarisation of the atria, leading to atrial contraction (atrial systole)

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PR interval

time taken for impulses to be conducted from the SAN across the atria to the ventricles, through the AVN 

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QRS complex

wave of depolaristion resulting in contraction of the ventricles (ventricular systole)

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T wave

repolarisation of the ventricles during the heart's relaxation phase (diastole)

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autonomic nervous system

part of the nervous system responsible for control of the bodily functions not conciously directed e.g. breathing, heart beat and digestive systems

nerves forming part of the autonomic nervous system lead from the cardiovascular control centre to the heart. These two such nerves are:

- sympathetic nerve 

- parasympathetic (vagus) nerve 

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sympathetic nerve

stimulation of the sympathetic nerves prepares the bodys systems for action (fight or flight response)

- increases breathing rate 

- increases heart rate and stroke volume

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parasympathetic nerve

stimulation of the parasympathetic nerve controls the bodys systems when resting and digesting

- decreases breathing rate

- decreases heart rate and stroke volume

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tidal volume

the volume of air we breathe in and out at each breath 

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vital capacity

maximum volume of air we can inhale and exhale

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minute ventilation

volume of air taken into the lungs in one minute

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ventilation centre sends nerve impulses every 2-3 seconds to the exterenal intercostal muscles and diaphragm muscles. Both these sets of muscles contract causing inhalation

during deep inhalation not only are the external intercostal muscles stimulated, but the neck and upper chest muscles are also brought into play

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1. as the lungs inflate stretch receptors in the bronchioles are stimulated

2. stretch receptors send inhibitory impluses back to the ventilation centre

3. as a consequence umpulses to the muscles stop and the muscles relax, stopping inhalation and allowing exhalation

Exhalation is caused by the classic recoil of the lungs and by gravity helping to lower the ribs. Not all of the air in the lungs is exhaled with each breath. The air remaining in the lungs, residual air, mixes with the air inhaled with breath.

The intercostal muscles only contract during deep exhalation. E.g. during vigarous exercise a larger volume of air is exhaled, leaving less residual air in the lungs.

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c02 and breathing rate

1. CO2 dissolves in blood plasma, making carbonic acid

2. carbonic acid dissociates into hydrogen ions and hydrogencarbonate ions, thereby lowering the pH of the blood

3. chemoreceptors sensitive to hydorgen ions are located in the ventilation centre of the mdeulla oblongata. They detect the rise in hydorgen ion concentration

4. impluses are sent to other parts of the ventilation centre

5. impulses are sent from the ventilation centre to stimulate the muscles involved in breathing. 

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slow twitch muscle fibres

- specialised for slower longer periods of exercises 

- specialised for sustained contractions 

- many mitochondria

- ATP comes from aerobic respiration (electron transport chain)

- fatigue resistant

- low glycogen content

- low levels of creatine phosphate

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fast twitch muscle fibres

- specialised for faster shorter periods of exercises 

- specialised for intense contractions 

- few mitochondria

- ATP comes from anaerobic respiration (glycolysis)

- fatigue quickly

- high glycogen content

- high levels of creatine phosphate

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control of the body temperature. our core body temperature is very stable and normally about 37.5 degrees celsius. This body temperature allows enzyme controlled reactions to occur at a reasonable rate. 

This temperature is maintained by negative feedback. 

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heat loss centre


- sweat glands to secrete sweat


- contraction of arterioles in skin (dialtes capillaries in skin)

- hair erector muscles (relax: hair lies flat)

- liver (reduces metabolic rate)

- skeletal muscles (relax: no shivering)

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heat gain centre


- arterioles in the skin to constrict

- hair erector muscles to contract

- liver to raise metabolic rate

- skeletal muscles to contract in shivering


- sweat glands

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thermoregulation in skin

cold conditions

- arteriole constricts

- shunt dilates

warm conditions

- arteriole relaxes

- shunt constricts

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methods of energy transfer


- off of skin


- when we touch objects


- bulk movement of air near skin


- sweat

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vigorous exercise immune system problems

suppresses immune system, lowering levels of:

- natural killer cells

- phagocytes

- B cells

- T helper cells

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vigorous exercise knee problems

- articular cartilage covering the surface of the bone wears away so the bones actually grind on each other

- patellar tendonities occurs when the kneecap does not glide smoothly across the femer due to damage of the articular cartilage

- fluid sacs can swell with extra fluid as a result they may push against other tissues and joints causing inflammation and tenderness

- sudden or abrupt movements can lead to ligament tears

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keyhole surgery

surgeon makes one or two small incisions, a small camera and light source are inserted, allowing the inside of the joint to be seen and a diagnosis can be confirmed. If surgery is needed, miniature instruments are inserted through the incisions. 


- minimal damage

- minimal cost

- minimal recovery time

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artificial body part designed to regain some degree of normal function or appearance


- damaged joints can be replaced or repaired

- frees patient from a life of pain

- restores full mobility

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doping (performance enhancing drugs)

supporting arguments

- making decisions for youself

- maximising your potential

reufting arguments

- rights and duties

- maximising the amount of good in the world

- making it a fair test

- setting an example

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steroid hormone drugs

- lipid based fat 

- can move through cell membrane in target cell due to being soluble

- in order to effect the cell they have to bind on the receptors in the cytoplasm

- hormone receptor complex acts as transcrition factors

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peptide hormone drugs

- protein based drug

- cant move through cell membrane in target cell due to being charged

- in order to effect the cell they have to bind on the receptors in the cytoplasm

- this in turn activates a second messenger within the cell, this could be an enzyme or a transcription factors

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cruciate ligament

- behind the knee cap

- control joint movement

- prevents joint from overstretching

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