Topic 2: Hitler and the Growth of the Nazi Party 1918 - 33

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  • Created on: 07-04-19 11:16

Hitler and the DAP

  • Hitler was born and both his parents died when he was young, he got rejectd from the Academy of Art and painted postcards for a living
  • In 1914 he volunteerd to serve in the German army in WW1, here he won the Iron Cross First Class and was promoted to Lance-Corporal.  He says it was the happiest time of his life
  • Hitler spent the last weeks of the war in hospital and didn't understand why the war ended. He believed in a Jewish conspiracy and accused the November criminals of betraying Germany
  • Hitler remained in the army as a spy but in September 1919 he was ordered to join the DAP
  • Hitler joined the party committee and was appointed to be in charge of propaganda
  • In 1921 Hitler became leader of the DAP
  • Hitler changed the name to NSDAP so that he could attract as many supporters as possible
  • The party becam nick-named the nazis by opponents
  • The main appeal of the party was through the speeches of Hitler
  • Hitler set up his own private army named the Sturm Abteilung (SA) led by Ernst Rohm to attack his oponents in the streets
  • Hitler tried to pose as a strong man who could solve Germany's problems
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The 25 point programme

The main aims:

  • We demand the unon of all Germany in a Greater Germany on the basis of the right of national self-determination
  • We demand land and territory (colonies) to feed our people and to settle our surplus population
  • Only members of the nation may be citizens of the state.  Only those of German blood, whatever their creed, may be members of the nation.  Accordingly, no Jew may be a member of the nation
  • Non-citizens may live in Germany only as guests and mst be subject to laws for aliens
  • All non-German immigration must be prevented.  We demand that all non-Germans who entered Germany after 2 August 1914 shall be required to leave the Reich forthwith
  • We demand controls on the press to prevent deliberate lies being spread about political parties.  The publishing of papers which do not support the national welfare must be forbidden
  • To put the whole of this programme into effect, we demand the creation of a strong central state power for the Reich
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The Munich Putsch

The 8th of November 1932

  • Hitler used the chaos in 1932 due to the hyperinflation as an opportunity to seize power
  • He had already staged a coup in May that had been broken up by the authorities
  • He decided to act when he heard that three Bavarian ministers would be present at a meeting in Bergerbraukeller in Munich on the 8th of November
  • At 8;30 PM Hitler stormed into the meeting fired a gun at the ceiling and announced that he would try to take over the government the following morning
  • The ministers agreed to help him but they managed to escape and warn the authorities

The 9th of November 1932

  • At 8:30 AM Ernst Rohm and the SA seized the post office in Munich and waited for Hitler to march his support
  • Hitler had got up late and did not begin the march until 11:00
  • Hitler and war-hero Ludendorff led the march into Munich with around 2,000 supporters
  • The police killed 16 Nazis including Hitler's body guard, the Nazis had hoped they wouldn't fire
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What happened to Hitler after the Munich Putsch?

What happened to Hitler?

  • Hitler fled but was arrested two days later
  • He was tried for high treason and was found guilty
  • He was sentenced to five years in prison
  • While in prison Hitler wrote 'Mein Kampf'
  • Hitler was let out only 11 months after

Mein Kampf ideas:

  • Germans were the master race, 'Herrenvolk', all others were inferior
  • Germany should be re-united to seize the east
  • To make Germany great they needed a strong leader
  • They needed a dictatorship, as democracy was weak and communism was evil
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Changes to the Nazi party

What changes were made?

  • They should gain power in legal ways and therefore had to set up a proper political party
  • He appointed Josef Geobbels as head propaganda, so he could put across the Nazi message as clear as possible
  • The Schutz Staffel (**) was formed in 1926 and was loyal to Hitler
  • He founded the Hitler youth\

Why were these changes made?

  • He knew that he couldn't use violence again
  • At his trial he gained the attention of Alfred Hugenberg who offered to finance the Nazis, Hegenberg owned 53 newspapers which he used to publicize the Nazis
  • In 1929 Hugenberg bought the largest cinema chain which helped the Nazis even more
  • At the end of 1926 the Nazi Party had 50,000 members but seats in the Reichstag had fallen to 32 in 1924 to 12 in 1928
  • During the 'Golden Years' they only had 800,000 votes in the generak election
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Why did support for the Nazis grow so quickly?

  • Hitler told the people that the Depresion was not their fault and he blamed the Jews and the Weimar politians, they were his scapegoat
  • Hitler flew to 5 cities in one day to spread the Nazi message and he was the first politian to do so
  • Goebbels organised rallies, radio broadcasts, torchlight processions, films.  This was far beyond their rivals
  • Hitler said he would get rid of the ToV which had damaged Germany
  • Hitler promised different things to different people to businessmen he promised protection from the communists and to workers he promised that he would provide jobs
  • The violence of the SA increased,  this gave people the idea of action and that things were happening
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How did Hitler become chancellor?

  • In 1932 Hitler stood in the presendential elections agains Hindenburg
  • Hindenburg had 17 million votes and Hitler had 11 million votes
  • Hindenburg didn't like that Hitler had stood up against him
  • In the elections of July 1932 the Nazis were the biggest party but Hindenburg refused to appoint Hitler as chancellor so Franz von Papen became chancellor
  • Von Papen was a political nobody and in November there was another general election
  • In the November 1932 elections the Nazis were still the biggest and Kurt von Schleicher became president
  • Schleicher had even less support than von Papen and only lasted a mont
  • Von Papen was furious that von Schleicher had taken his place and wanted to get rid of him
  • In January 1933 he suggested that Hindenburg should appoint Hitler as chancellor and von Papen as vice-chancellor, so Von Papen could control Hitler
  • Hindenburg agreed and on the 31st of January 1933 Hitler became chancellor of Germany
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The Munich Putsch was in 1923 not in 1932

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