How succsessful was the LON in 1920's?
- Aaland Islands, 1921, dispute between Finland and Sweden League awards to Finland, Sweden accepts.
- Austria and Hungary economic crisis, 1922 - 23, solved by a team of the League Ambassadors.
- Greece and Bulgaria, 1925, Greece invade Bulgaria, but arfter League pressure they withdraw.
- Not many obvious failures;should be noted that success often involved smaller Nations.
- Italy and Corfu, 1923, the League faced Italy but failed to resolve the issue.
- Poland to Vilna 1920, Poland seizes Vilna from Lithuania, and in 1923, it becomes Polish.
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Why was the LON set up?
- 14th point of the 14 points
- Police the world (Intent)
- Stop aggression (Stop wars using non agressive tactics)
- Encourage cooporation ( Permanent Court of International Justice)
- Disarmament (Believed that the war was coming to a close)
- Improving living and working conditions (Refugees World health org)
- Established in 1920
- 42 members (60 by 1930's)
- 26 Rules
- Every member had one vote in the assembly
- Only some could vote on the council
- LON could warn countries then place trade sanctions (after send troops in)
- Solved boarder disputes
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What work did the agencies and the commissions do?
Resolved legal issues and bank balances.
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Did weakness in the LON make failure inevitable?
- The USA did not join ( a major power with a large military)
- B and F were in charge neither was strong after war had weakend and therfore not strong enough to do the job properly.
- Economic and MIlitery sanctions could only work if a powerful nation was applying them. Most countries were to busy to apply them.
- Germany and communist Russia were not allowed to be members when the league first formed.
- League had no army of its own and most members did not want to comit trips to war.
- Some countries like Italy were prepared to ignore the league.
- Organisation was a disaster everyone had to agree before anything was done. Court of Justice had no powers on which to act.
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Did the Depression make the LON work more difficul
- The depression caused wide spread poverty.
- People were expected to support more right winged extreme leaders hoping they provide a strong goverment.
- In 1933 the Nazis elected in Germany defied the LON and left by overturning the Treaty of Versailles.
- Depression meant countries like B and Fr were less willing to help the LON by resolving international conflicts. They wanted to concentrate on demestic problems like unemployment.
- Factor in some international conflicts. ie Manchuria
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Why did the LON fail over Manchuria and Abyssinia
- Japan suffered in Depression
- When Japan rebuilt, it build military wise. This aggression led to Japan wanting more from the League.
- The Japanese pretended to give independence, however put a weak leader called Puyi who was easy to control.
- THe LON sent Lord Lytton to assess the situation. He said that the Japanese are wrong but the LON did not do anything about it.
- Japan refused to accept Lord L report and withdrew from the League in 1933.
- In 1933 the Japanese invade Chinese Provence.
- Hitler and Mussolini saw weakness in the League and in 1936 Japan signed a treaty with Germany and in 1937 started invading China. LON did nothing to stop this.
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- Mussolini invaded Abyssinia in 1935. He sent troups with heavy artiliary.
- Abyssinian leader appealed directly to LON for help.
- LON imposed economic sanctions but delayed banning oil exports in case the USA did not support them.
- LON did not close the Suez Canal to Italian ships (so supplies got through despite the sanctions)
- May 1936 Italy had conquered all of Abyssinia.
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What did the failure of M and A reveal about the L
Revealed that they were weak, that the Facists could get what whey wanted, that you can start a war and the LON would not do anything about it.
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