# TITRATION CALCULATIONS

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• Created by: Holly
• Created on: 19-05-13 18:09

## WORKING OUT THE CONCENTRATION IN MOLES PER DM3

STEP 1: WORK OUT HOW MANY MOLES ARE IN THE 'KNOWN' SUBSTANCE.

NUMBER OF MOLES = CONCENTRATION X VOLUME.

STEP 2: WRITE DOWN THE BALANCED EQUATION OF THE REACTION... AND WORK OUT HOW MUCH OF THE UNKNOWN SUBSTANCE YOU MUST HAVE HAD.

STEP 3: WORK OUT THE CONCENTRATION OF THE UNKNOWN SUBSTANCE.

CONCENTRATION = NUMBER OF MOLES / VOLUME

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## WORKING OUT THE CONCENTRATION IN GRAMS PER DM3

STEP 1: WORK OUT THE RELATIVE FORMULA MASS FOR THE ACID.

STEP 2: CONERT THE CONCENTRATION IN MOLES IN TO CONCENTRATION IN GRAMS

MASS IN GRAMS = MOLES X RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS

NUMBER OF MOLES = MASS / RELATIVE FORMULA MASS

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## ENERGY

ENERGY MUST ALWAYS BE SUPPLIED TO BREAK BONDS...

... AND ENERGY IS ALWAYS RELEASED WHEN BONDS ARE FORMED

TO BREAK BONDS ITS ENDOTHERMIC

TO MAKE BONDS ITS EXOTHERMIC

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## FUEL ENERGY IS CALCULATED USING CALORIMETRY

CALORIMETRY:

1) PUT 50G OF WATER IN COPPER CAN AND RECORD ITS TEMPERATURE.

2)WEIGHT THE SPIRIT BURNER AND LID.

3)PUT THE SPIRIT BURNER UNDERNEATH THE CAN, AND LIGHT THE WICK. HEAT THE WATER, STIRRING CONSTANLTY, UNTIL TEMP. REACHES 50*C.

4)PUT THE FLAME OUT USING THE BURNER LID, AND MEASURE THE FINAL TEMPERATURE OF THE WATER.

5) WEIGH THE SPIRIT BURNER AND LID AGAIN.

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## BOND ENERGIES

ENERGY LEVEL DIAGRAMS SHOW IF ITS AN ENDO- OR EXO-THERMIC REACTION.

ACTIVIATION ENERGY IS THE ENERGY NEEDED TO BREAK THE OLD BONDS.

THE ACTIVATION ENGERY IS LOWERED BY A CATALYST.

USING BOND ENERGIES YOU CAN CALCULATE THE OVERALL ENERGY CHANGE

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