Time orientation & chronic illness

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Chronic illness affect perceptions past self

Temporal self-appraisal theory is the tendency to derogate distant past selves and praise recent past selves (Wilson & Ross, 2001)

Temporal distance can be linked to growth and positive change

For example, the longer the psychological distance could mean the more perceived difference

In terms of chronic illness, having a chronic illness provides a context of continuity and challenge to the self-system. This can evoke perceptions of positive or negative change over time (Sirois & Hirsch, 2013). Perceived temporal distance to a past self can be related to adjustment of chronic illness. 

For example, the longer the distance could mean the more perceived change

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factors influence expectations FH chronic illness

Expectations of future health are influenced mainly by fatigue, and to a lesser extent by personality factors as shown in Sirois's (2015) study. 

Future self-rated health is an important predictor of objective health and health-related outcomes such as health behaviours, cortisol responses to stress, morbidity, and mortality.

Little research on FSRH or the personality factors associated with expectations for future health.
Examined how the five factors of personality were linked to FSRH.
Controlled for fatigue, which is a common feature of many chronic illnesses.
Two chronic illness samples.
Inflammatory bowel disease.
Analyses controlled for age, education, current health, and fatigue.
Fatigue explained 11% and 17% of the variance of FSRH.
Agreeableness and neuroticism explained additional variance in FSRH (4%)
Optimism levels explained why A & N were linked to FSRH

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future time orientation linked disease management

Future time orientation predicts better weight management behaviours in the context of type 2 diabetes through stronger behavioural intentions as shown in Hall et al's (2012) study.

Examined the influence of time perspective on two weight-management behaviours (physical activity and dietary choice) in a sample of individuals newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes

Examined the role of behavioural intentions in explaining these links

204 participants. Mean age 57 years (range 29-79)

2 measures of behaviour specific time perspective: TPQ-E, TQQ-D

Future-oriented time perspective was prospectively associated with superior uptake of the two weight management behaviours.

These effects were selectively mediated by intention strength, and not competing social cognitive variables

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procrastination in adjustment chronic illness

Trait procrastination (low future time orientation) is a vulnerability for poor coping in the context of chronic illness.
Found if you are a trait procrastinator you do not cope well with fibromyalgia (Beauregard & Sirois, 2015). 
Is procrastination a vulnerability factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease? (Sirois, 2015).
Both stress and poor health behaviours are implicated in the development and exacerbation of a number of major chronic diseases including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Procrastination associated with low conscientiousness and agreeableness, which are both linked to poor cardiovascular health.
Poor coping may increase vulnerability in individuals with HT/CVD.
980 community adults --> 182 with self-reported HT/CVD.
798 screened for other health conditions --> 564 healthy controls.
Results - Trait procrastination scores (GPS) predicted being in the CVD/HT group.
For every 1 point increase in GPS, chances of having CVD/HT increased by 60%, controlling for demographics. Moderated mediation analyses: stronger association with maladaptive coping behaviours in participants with HT/CVD than the healthy controls. Indirect effects on stress through maladaptive coping were sig. larger for the HT/CVD sample.

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