Theorists.

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  • Created by: Maisie97
  • Created on: 24-04-15 13:24

Bandura: Social Learning Theory.

Description...

Suggests that children learn skills and attitudes, but that they also learn behaviours from watching adults.

Influence on practise...

  • Help children learn manners, thoughtfullness and turn taking
  • Help children to become inspired to try a new activity or skill
  • Help children learn a new skill from observing an adult

Apply theory to practise...

  • Make sure that you are role modelling god behaviours and attitudes
  • Recognise that children can pick up unwanted behavious after observing adults
  • Role-play activities could be set up following a visit or outing
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Skinner: Operant Conditioning Theory.

Description...

Suggests that adults can reinforce children's wanted behaviour.

Influence on practise...

  • Help children learn wanted behaviours such as tidying up after an activity
  • Encourage children to persist at an activity
  • Consider whether some behaviours have been learned because young children have had reinforcement for showing unwanted behaviour

Apply theory to practise...

  • Remember positive reinforcements work better when they are used at time of wanted behaviour
  • When providing positive reinforcements, explain why to the child so they can understand
  • Use reinforements that aren't regular
  • Stongest positive reinforcement is paying attension to the child when they are good
  • Don't use secondary reinforcements
  • Expectations of wanted behaviour are age/stage appropriate
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Piaget: Cognitive Development Theory.

Description...

Suggested that a stage-like approach to cognitive development.  Focused on the child as an active learner, beliving that they construct their own ideas and logic about their immediate world based on the experiences they have had.

Influence on practise...

  • Recognise that children learn at their own pace
  • Provide opportunities for exploration and play so that children can develop their own thinking

Apply the theory to practise...

  • Provide opportunities for children to explore a range of materials
  • Provide opportunities for role play as children use this to play out experiences with own rules
  • Do not mock children who say 'where is your mummy', this is logical for them
  • Be aware of child's stage of development in respect of their ability to conserve
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Vygotsky: Zone of Proximal Development.

Description...

Interaction with adults helps in child's development.  Suggested in ZPD, children develop further skill extending beyond their current level with the support of an adult.

Influence on practise...

  • Help children develop further skills, knowledge or reasoning

Apply to practise...

  • Indentify child's current level of skills, knowledge and reasoning - careful observation
  • Plan for the next step for individual children
  • Work closely with children, using sensitive interaction and questioning so children can be supported to acquire a new skill, level of reasoning or piece of knowledge
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Athey: Schema Theory.

Description...

Based on Piaget's concept of children developing schemas or patterns of thinking.  She suggested that patterns of thinking could be identified through children's play.

Influence on practise...

  • Identify schemas children are using and provide opportunities for children to use them
  • Help parents and practitioners recognise that a child's activity is not meaningless but support their cognitive development

Apply to practise...

  • Observe children at play and identify schema they may be exploring
  • Consider resources and activites that may support children's exploration of common schema
  • Take film clips of children engaged in play with schemas and talk to parents about importance
  • Talk to parents about their child's play interests at home and play activities around these
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Bruner: Theoretical Framework.

Description...

Suggested that children process information in different ways according to their age.  Children learn through play and exploration.

Influence on practise...

  • Help children learn concepts and to developtheir reasoning and logic

Apply to practise...

  • Provide opportunities for interactions with children in style of discussion
  • Refer to child's previous experiences so they can make a connection between new thoughts etc.
  • Revisit activities with children so they can experience them again
  • Plan challenging enjoyable activities for children to gain new experiences
  • Talk to parents about importance of active learning that is supported by adults in helping cognition
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Chomsky: Language Acquistion Device.

Description...

Suggested humans have innate sense of language and the LAD allows them to acquire language.

Influence on practise...

  • Ensure that there are opportunities for age/stage appropriate interaction
  • Support the languag development of children who have an additional home language

Apply to practise...

  • Think about whether children have enough opportunities for interactions
  • Make sure length of interactions with children allow them to acquire language
  • Speak grammaticaly correct and clear
  • Don't correct child's language - repeat back to them in the correct way
  • Reduce level of background noise
  • Encourage parents to use their home language whilst child is young so it can be acquired
7 of 12

Erikson: Psychosocial Stages of Personality Theor

Description...

Suggests personality is stage-like and that during the stages certain reactions and attitudes of aduts can influence child's personality.

Influence on practise...

  • Create nurturing environments which children are given opportunities to explore
  • Ensure the adults understand the importance of sensitive working

Apply to practise...

  • Ensure children have opporunities to be independent and take risks
  • Don't over-critcise children but have high expectations
  • Provide some unconditional and positive acknowledgement of the child
  • Help parents be aware that unconditional support and love is essential - over-fousing on something can make child feel insecure
8 of 12

Harter: Model of Self-esteem.

Description...

Suggests that young children are developing their self-image.  Looking glass theory suggests that self-image is developed in response to the way others react to them.

Influence on practise...

  • Help practitioners develop strong, nurturing relationships with children
  • Ensure that settings are happy places where adults are positive about children and their families

Apply to practise...

  • Think about how often positive comments are made to children
  • Show positvie body language
  • Avoid talking negatively about children when they are near
  • Give unconditional praise and ackowledgement of child's efforts
  • Give interst in what child is doing
  • Challenge unkind remarks made by children to each other
  • Talk to child about bad behaviour - make distinction betwene the behaviour and the child
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Kohlberg and Piaget: Stages of Moral Development.

Description...

Came up with conclusion that children are essentially amoral.  Piaget recognised that children are influenced by adults reactions.

Influence on practise...

  • Make sure expectations of child's moral behaviour are age/stage appropriate
  • Make sure adults understand that child's early learning about pro-social and moral behaviour is dependant on their reactions

Apply to practise...

  • Recognise children are likely to follow examples of adult
  • Make sure reactions to incidents and unwanted behaviour are proportional
  • Expect that children may be able to say the setting's ruled they might also brake them
10 of 12

Brofenbrenner: Ecological Systems Theory.

Description...

Suggests that the child's immediate environment, community and wider society can influence development.

Influence on practise...

  • Understand importance of working with parents
  • Find ways of working closer within local community

Apply to practise...

  • Aim to build strong relationships with parents - involve them with planning activities for child
  • Create opportunities for them to interact within the setting
  • Provide information about what child is doing in the setting
  • Talk to parents about their child and what they feel their strengths/weaknesses are
  • Lend resources to parents
  • Take interest in what child enjoys at home
  • Create links with local community - organise visits
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Bowlby and Ainsworth: Security of Attachment.

Description...

Suggests that children need strong attachments to their parents, also with adults who are involved with child.  Resulted in key person system in the setting.

Influence on practise...

  • Ensure children are not distressed during separated from parents
  • Ensure a smooth transition between home and setting
  • Provide key person

Apply to practise...

  • Make sure each child has key person
  • Find out about child's past experiences with separation
  • Build relationship with child before parents leave the setting
  • Work closely with parents
  • Make sure you show unconditional care and love for the child
  • Consider routines of the day - enough opportunities for key children to spend time with you
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