Bourgeoisie benefit from exploiting the rest of society.
Bourgeoisie are economically dominant, they own the means of production.
Argue that we are unaware of our 'real identity' as exploited and oppressed workers (false class conciousness).
Argue that socialisation is an ideological process in that its main aim is to teach society that capitalist society is meriocratic.
Meritocracy refers to a social system in which individuals advance and earn rewards in direct proportion to their individual abilities and efforts.
Power in society is based on class, status and political party.
Power is excercised in 3 ways, through class, status and party.
Power comes from the individuals ability to control certain resources:
e.g: land, capital, social respect, physical strength, physical strength, itellectual knowledge.
Emerged in the 1980's
Characterised by freedom of choice and diversity, people are free from gender roles and tradition.
Culture and structures are fragmented meaning society's less predictable.
Status is no longer ascribed but achieved.
Religion looses infulence (secularisation).
Society has experienced major changes, that the old ways of explaining it don't fit anymore. We're entertaining a new sort of society.
Image is everything: Hyper-reality.
Secularisation, hybridity (fusion of culuture and identity), consumerism, loss of faith (religion), individually created status, position and identity.
"Bottom Up" theory
Individuals create and respond to symbols and ideas.
People have an active role in shaping social life. People do not see themselves as puppets of society. (Criticise Marx).
The Symbol: We group things into categories which then seperate into the symbols which may evoke some feelings within us.
The Self: People have to know who they are within the world of symbols to understand the meanings.
The Interaction: Point at which the symbol and self come together with others in a interaction.
Britain is a patriarchal society. Men have more power and prestige than women over a range of institutions.
Marxist Feminists:Women are oppressed through systems of capitalism and private property. Liberation can only be achieved through revolutionising the economy. Radical restructuring can only be achieved.
Radical Feminists: The patriarchal opression and explotation of women is built into every aspect of the way society is organised. Through gender role socialisation women are socialised into accepting female subordination, seeing motherhood as their role.
Liberal Feminists:Both men and women are oppressed by rigid gender roles. Socialisation and discrimination limit men and women to very narrow expressions of gendered behaviour.
March of Progress: Men and women are becoming more equal. Women in terms of equality within the family, education and economy. Men are adapting to the change.
Talcott Parsons (1902-1979)
Sees the individual as less inportant than the social struture and organisation of society.
Everyone has a purpose to keep society moving forwards.
'Top Down' theory, looks at society as a whole rather than the indiviuals.
Social insititutions bring about the patterns of shared and stable behaviour which they reffer to as 'social order'.
People are a product of all the socal influences on them; family,friends, educational and religious background.