Theme 1 Case Studies

Covers some example case studies for each section


Access to Housing and Services in Ipswich

Ipswich CBD:

  • Small terraces / flats above shops
  • Limited space
  • Good access to services and transport links

Rushmere and Kesgrave:

  • Bungalows / detached properties
  • Near local shops and schools
  • Large gardens and links to main roads around Ipswich and A roads to Felixstowe

Lindberg Road (Council Estate Area)

  • Semi-detached and terrace housing
  • School nearby - no local shops
  • Bad reputation but large gardens
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Parkhill Flats

  • Built in the 1950's
  • As a result of bomb damage, houses needed to be built quickly
  • Housed 3000 people in 1000 flats
  • Built in 3 years with concrete and cheap materials
  • A third was allocated as council flats as the rest was needed to fund the development
  • Built on a site of old steelworks
  • Many people become unemployed in the 1970's
  • Problems started to hit the flats
  • Listed as a grade II property
  • 'Right to buy' led to many people buying their flats
  • Run down and was called to be demolished
  • Families started to leave and the community was split up
  • The whole structure except from the frame was demolished and re-developed and is being renewed
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Regeneration of Ipswich Waterfront

  • The area is being transformed from warehouses and factories into living accomodation
  • Largest dock in the UK in 1842
  • Regeneration started in about 2005-06
  • Environment around has been damaged
  • Gentrification is occuring
  • More money needs to be invested into the area for it to be completed
  • Does not look very attractive - lots of muddy and half built areas
  • Massive financial debt on the council


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Mexico to the USA Migration

  • 2000km border between USA and Mexico
  • 1 million+ Mexicans migrate each year
  • Illegal immigration is a huge problem
  • US Border patrol guards the border to stop illegal immigrants

Push and Pull Factors:

  • The USA needs seasonal workers for farms and factories
  • Wages are higher in the USA - 10X that in Mexico
  • Education in USA is free
  • Quality of life in Mexico is lower


  • Mexican migrants benefit from Us economy
  • Mexican culture has enriched US border states
  • Illegal immigration costs millions of dollars
  • Mexican countryside has a shortage of economically active people
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Improving Squatter Settlements



  • Reduce problems of mass migration
  • Education
  • Health and Nutrition
  • Economic Development
  • Community Development


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Kibera - Biggest Slum on Earth

Background of Kibera:

  • 3 squared miles
  • Largest in Africa
  • 7km west of Narobi
  • Largest in the World
  • 1.5 Million live there
  • 80% Unemployed
  • Most earn less than $5
  • 9x9 ft = 5 to 12 people
  • No sewerage
  • No electricity
  • No running water
  • Life expectancy = 48 years
  • 1 million have Aids/HIV
  • 450,000 are orphans
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Thurston - Counter Urbanisation

  • On the A14
  • Railways
  • 14km from Bury
  • Schools are increasing in size
  • Higher house prices
  • More services
  • Better public transport
  • Local businesses benefit at weekend
  • Opening of bigger chained stores
  • Green space is decreasing
  • More cars on the road
  • Loss of community spirit
  • Population increases
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Rural to Urban Migration in South Africa

Limpopo to Johannesburg (Gauteng)

  • Limpopo - Few rural houses have electricity, lack of money, little jobs opportunities, low QoL
  • Johannesburg - Jobs, better opportunities, better healthcare, schools for children

Johannesburg gained 525,000 migrants during 2005

There is a difference in quality of life as there are more facilties in Johannesburg

Impacts on Limpopo - loss of skilled workers, threat of losing young people

Migrants go to the areas that are nearest them to other provinces such as the Western Cape

Impact on Johannesburg - More skilled workers are coming into the area, new technologies are being brought into the area

Typical migrant - Aged 15-35 and females are more likely to migrate to rural areas

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Distribution of Retail Services in an Urban Area

Meadowhall Shopping Centre in Sheffield:

  • The city centre is a district of about 0.75miles squared surrounded with a ring road which was completed in 2007
  • In 1994 the town was split into 11 parts
  • Area was home to steelworks
  • Built next to Tinsley Towers
  • The site had no use
  • Sheffield and Rotherham were in some trouble
  • Rotherham was building Parkgate so Sheffield was going to lose trade
  • Acted as a catalyst for regeneration across the area
  • Other shopping centres were being built
  • Surrounding CBD has has less shoppers
  • Rotherham is up 20%
  • People are more attracted to come here rather than the CBD because of its indoor facilities, free parking and wider range of shopping outlets
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