Theme 1


Camberley, Surrey


  • Urban area in the western part of Surrey
  • 31 miles southwest of central London
  • Between M3 and M4 motorways
  • Close to borders of Hampshire and Berkshire
  • Main town of Surrey Heath
  • Divided into 5 wards
  • Different characteristics
  • Different groups of people

Old Dean - Semi-detached 54.6%, council owned, young families

St Paul's - Detached, 82.7% owner occupied, affluent 44-65 year olds

Town - 39.8% Detached, families

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People in Camberley

St Paul's - Affluent 44-65 year olds. Some of these couples have no children have no children to look after. People are highly educated (81.6% 5 or more A*-C). Very good job opportunities so they can afford the detached housing.

Old Dean - Most houses are semi-detached and council owned. Young families live here as they are more suitable to the more affordable housing available.

Town - Young 16-24 year olds. This is because they are closest to the leisure and entertainment services found in the CBD. CBD would normally attract younger people.

Tenure - This is th legal right to live in a house. This is normally split into 3 sections (Owner occupied, Council housing and Privately rented)

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Narborough Road, Leicester

Distribution of the Service

  • Runs southwest from the CBD to the M1
  • Different types of shops along this road
  • In the CBD there are mainly chain an department stores
  • In the Wescotes Ward in the inner city, shopping parades can be found along the A46 as well as some corner shops
  • In the suburbs neighbourhood shopping parades can be found in the estates in the Rowley Fields Ward
  • Out of town shopping centre called Fosse Park beyond the city boundary at junction 21 of the M1 where stores such as Asda and Next can be found.
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Narborough Road, Leicester

Shops are now being built as places such as Fosse Centre because:

  • More space to expand on the edge of the city
  • Land is cheaper
  • Close to motorways so easily accessible
  • Less traffic congestion
  • Ample parking spaces (FREE)
  • Huge range on services

Opened in 1989- There has been an increase in traffic congestion around the Fosse Park area. 

Leicester CBD has suffered from a loss of trade and some shops have closed down

The growth of large supermarkets has caused some small corner shops such as butchers to close down.

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Access to mosques in Barcelona, Spain

  • There are 16 moques in Barcelona
  • 10 are clustered together in Ciutat Vella
  • 3 can be foun in El Raval
  • 27.6% of people who live in Ciutat Vella and El Raval are immigrants

Muslims who migrate from Morrocco and Pakistan live in these two towns as they have good access to mosque who cater for for Islamic religions. Ciutat Vella and El Raval are also very chep to live in. The immigrants who live here do poorly paid work and this is why they can not afford to live in more expensive parts of the city. There are also halal butchers who cater for them,

People that live in the other parts of the city will not have good access to mosques and this why they will travel to them. They are able to afford transport such as cars.

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Rural to Urban migration in Sao Paulo

Large numbers of Brazilians are moving int Sao Paulo from rural areas like north east Brazil. This is causing problems because when they arrive there is not enough houses to accomodate them. This means that they are then forced into living in shanty towns. Shanty towns are low quality housing which are ofter found on the outskirts of the city.

Problems with Shanty Towns:

  • Jobs are temporary, part time and low paid
  • Disease is common
  • Houses are often built of mud and straw and scrap materials
  • Roads are unmade
  • High unemployment levels
  • Major crime levels
  • Few schools and medical care
  • No drains, sewage or water supply 
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Solution to Rural to Urban migration

1. The comprehensive redevelopment programme. $150 million spent on the Morumbi district of Sao Paulo.

Phase 1 - Identify the district with the poorest living conditions

Phase 2 - Bulldoze the site, forcing everyone to leave the area

Phase 3 - Re-house 33,000 people who can afford to pay rent

55,000 people live in this favela but only 33,000 are rehomed. This site is fully serviced with running water, sewage, waste disposal, electricity and street lighting. Rent ranges between $120-180 per month. Money for the scheme was provided by the inter-american bank and the mayor of sao paulo.

Most families of Morumbi cant afford the rent. The people cant afford the rent will have to move elsewhere as their homes have been bulldozed. It does improve the quality of life of the people who can afford rent but does not tackle problems such as employment, education and medicine.

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Solution to Rural to Urban migration

2. Self-help scheme

In the Diadema favela a scheme of of $30 million dollars was introduced to improve the quality of life to 80,000 people. The houses constructed were basic but functional. 90% of the original residents were re-homed. Rent started at $60 a month.

Winners - Houses were clean, children can have a shower whenever they want. Community spirit in the area so everyone looks after their home as they helped build them.

Losers - Not everyone could afford the $60 a month rent. Some people had to move their family away which lead to an uncertain future.

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Solution to Rural to Urban migration

3. Site and Service Schemes

Jardim Icarai, a suburb of Sao Paulo has seen a recent influx of new migrants. Land on the northern edge of the city is undeveloped so it is not suitable for housing. This is because it is 45km from the city centre, under a major flight path, adjacent to an industrial area, a steep hilly area which is known for mudslides.

Authorities have provided 5,000 plots at $25,000. These has included major slop stabilisation, construction of water and sewage treatment works. Each plot also has a concrete base, fresh water supply and washing sink. If the rent is paid then the owners legally own the land.

Residents however have to build their own houses with their own materials as they have only paid for the plot.

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