The Treaty of Versailes

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  • Created by: Lily
  • Created on: 08-05-13 16:35

Wilsons Aims for Peace

  • "peace without victory"
  • May 1916 - postwar League of Nations
  • January 1918 - 14 Points
  • "nations to act together in the greater interests of the world rather than individual aims"
  • 1918 - Germany requested a peace based on the 14 Points
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The Fourteen Points

  • No more secret agreements
  • Free navigation of all seas
  • An end to all economic barriers between countries
  • Rights & opinions of people living in colonies should be considered
  • German Army removed from Russia
  • Belgium to be independent
  • France should be fully liberated and allowed Alsace-Lorraine
  • Self determination for all those in Austria-Hungary
  • Self-determination & independence for the Balkan States
  • Turkish people to be governed by a Turkish Government.
  • Independent Poland with access to the sea
  • League of Nations to guarantee the political/territorial independence of all states
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Treaty of Versailles

  • Germany to accept the blame for starting the War
  • German Army reduced to 100,000
  • Germany only allowed 6 battleships
  • Germany not allowed to build aeroplanes/submarines/tanks
  • Germany to pay $33 billion in reparations to the victorious nations
  • Germanys colonies given to France, Britain and others
  • Germany forbidden to unite with Austria
  • Germany to demilitarise the Rhineland
  • Alsace-Lorraine back to France, Germany to return land to Russia
  • Germany lose the Polish Corridor
  • League of Nations to keep world peace
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Opposition to the Treaty

  • Comitted the political independence.territorial integrity of all members
  • This was a concern as people felt the power to declare war would be taken from Congress, was a permenant violation of the Monroe Doctrine, the rules were very vague


The Irreconciliables - opposed any European intervention

The Reservationists - wanted the Treaty amended

Some people simply did not want Wilson to get his own way so close to the election.

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Events leading to the rejection of the Treaty

  • November 1918 - Republicans gain control of both houses in mid-terms
  • Feb 1919 - 39 Republican Senators sign a letter written by Lodge rejecting the current Treaty (Lodge did not like Wilson)
  • June 1919 - Germnay sign the Treaty of Versailles
  • July 1919 - Wilson submits the Treaty to the SEnate Foreign Relations Comittee which is led by Lodge
  • September 1919 - Wilson goes on a speaking tour round the Western States to gain public backing.
  • Sep 1919 - Foreign Relations sent Treaty to Senate with 14 Reservations
  • Oct 1919 - Wilson suffers devastating stroke
  • Nov 1919 - Senate vote against the amended Treaty
  • March 1920 - Senate vote in favour of the amended Treaty (but short of 2/3 majority)
  • July 1921 - War is formally ended but without signing any peace treaty.
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Why did the Treaty of Versailles fail?

WILSON - did not have a good relationship with senate members, not prepared to compromise, failed to persuade to public, lost control of Congress, only took 1 minor Republican to Versailes, advised Democrats in the Senate to vote against, stroke meant he was unable to campaign effectively

LODGE - effective in leading the opposition, used his influence in the comittee to slow down the process, proposed amendments that were unacceptable to Wilson,

OTHERS - senate did not like the idea of losing control, the treaty was a violation of the Monroe Doctrine, german-americans opposed the treaty, the american people were uneasy about future wars, some people did not want him to get his own way so close to the elctions

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