Wilsons Aims for Peace
- "peace without victory"
- May 1916 - postwar League of Nations
- January 1918 - 14 Points
- "nations to act together in the greater interests of the world rather than individual aims"
- 1918 - Germany requested a peace based on the 14 Points
The Fourteen Points
- No more secret agreements
- Free navigation of all seas
- An end to all economic barriers between countries
- Rights & opinions of people living in colonies should be considered
- German Army removed from Russia
- Belgium to be independent
- France should be fully liberated and allowed Alsace-Lorraine
- Self determination for all those in Austria-Hungary
- Self-determination & independence for the Balkan States
- Turkish people to be governed by a Turkish Government.
- Independent Poland with access to the sea
- League of Nations to guarantee the political/territorial independence of all states
Treaty of Versailles
- Germany to accept the blame for starting the War
- German Army reduced to 100,000
- Germany only allowed 6 battleships
- Germany not allowed to build aeroplanes/submarines/tanks
- Germany to pay $33 billion in reparations to the victorious nations
- Germanys colonies given to France, Britain and others
- Germany forbidden to unite with Austria
- Germany to demilitarise the Rhineland
- Alsace-Lorraine back to France, Germany to return land to Russia
- Germany lose the Polish Corridor
- League of Nations to keep world peace
Opposition to the Treaty
- MAIN PROBLEM - ARTICLE 10 - LEAGUE OF NATIONS
- Comitted the political independence.territorial integrity of all members
- This was a concern as people felt the power to declare war would be taken from Congress, was a permenant violation of the Monroe Doctrine, the rules were very vague
The Irreconciliables - opposed any European intervention
The Reservationists - wanted the Treaty amended
Some people simply did not want Wilson to get his own way so close to the election.
Events leading to the rejection of the Treaty
- November 1918 - Republicans gain control of both houses in mid-terms
- Feb 1919 - 39 Republican Senators sign a letter written by Lodge rejecting the current Treaty (Lodge did not like Wilson)
- June 1919 - Germnay sign the Treaty of Versailles
- July 1919 - Wilson submits the Treaty to the SEnate Foreign Relations Comittee which is led by Lodge
- September 1919 - Wilson goes on a speaking tour round the Western States to gain public backing.
- Sep 1919 - Foreign Relations sent Treaty to Senate with 14 Reservations
- Oct 1919 - Wilson suffers devastating stroke
- Nov 1919 - Senate vote against the amended Treaty
- March 1920 - Senate vote in favour of the amended Treaty (but short of 2/3 majority)
- July 1921 - War is formally ended but without signing any peace treaty.
Why did the Treaty of Versailles fail?
WILSON - did not have a good relationship with senate members, not prepared to compromise, failed to persuade to public, lost control of Congress, only took 1 minor Republican to Versailes, advised Democrats in the Senate to vote against, stroke meant he was unable to campaign effectively
LODGE - effective in leading the opposition, used his influence in the comittee to slow down the process, proposed amendments that were unacceptable to Wilson,
OTHERS - senate did not like the idea of losing control, the treaty was a violation of the Monroe Doctrine, german-americans opposed the treaty, the american people were uneasy about future wars, some people did not want him to get his own way so close to the elctions