Qua Purpose --> Based on purpose
Qua Regularity --> Based on regularity
An Posterior argument - arguement starts by looking at aparent design and then tries to demonstrate there must be a designer of it --> this is then evidence of which the argumentis developed from.
Aquianas set out the 5 ways --> 5TH WAY ID TELELOGICAL
5th Way- Aquinas
Everything in teh natural world follow natuarl laws -> everything has a purpose or a goal -> though an inanimate object need soemthing to direct it to its purpose. That something that that directs the natural world is God.
Similarly even though humans think for themselves and make their own aims to reach their final cause, humans are still contingent and they cant of designed themselves. This designer must of been God -> everything needs to be deisnged.
5th Way is in favour of deisn qua regularity --> argument says that the natural world folows natural laws that lead to certain changes.
eg Arrow hits a target even though it doesnt have a mind of its own --> The archer, that does have a mind shot the arrow --> things follow natural laws even though they do not have a mind of their own --> Some one with a mind of their own caused the natural world to behave this way... This being God
Weakness- the approproriatness of the analogy can be questined
The world is like a watch --> To intarcatly designed not to have a designer, that being God.
Used the analogy of comparing a rock to a watch.
1st Part- Design Qua Purpose --> Watch analogy, if we come across the watch you would of thought that it had a purpose and was designed for a reason --> Payley also thought the same about the human eye, birds wings etc. All have a purpose.
2nd Part- Qua Rehularity --> Used evidnece from astronomy and Newtons law of motion and gravtity to proove their is design. --> Payley pointed out that the way the solar system orbits and rotates around eachother shows their is design. --> an external being must of made this order other whise the universe wouldnt work how it does
Anthropic Principle- Recent development of telelog
Claims the cosmos is constructed for the development of intelligent life --> if anything differed slightly it would mean that the world wouldnt work how it does eg. one electron being different --> This means the world had to have a creator to get all the parts perfect.--> No consciedence.
3 types of natural evidnece-
1) The fact that the world can be analysed in a rational manner.
2) The way the inorganic world has provided the basic nesessities required to sustain life.
3) The process of evolution towards intelligent human life.
Also written by Tennant.
Argues taht humans posses the abilty to appreciate the beauty of their surroundings. -->
though not necessary for survival -->
there fore evidnence for the existence of God. -->
Didnt come due to natural selection.
Richard Swineburne- acepted anthropic principle
Recognised that the universe could easily of been chaotic-> the fact that it isnt prooves that its design not chance.
Swineburne considered that it came down to probabilities -->
What is the most probable reson for order in the universe chance or design --> the sheer complexity makes it unlikley that the universe would just happen --> swineburne accepted that it was more probable that there was a designer --> that being God --> simple explanation
David Hume- Rubbish telelogical argument.
1) Humans dont have sufficent knowledge and experience of the creation of the universe to conclude that there is only one desigener --> Humans only have experience of what they have designed and created.
2) If human experience of design was valid then the God may not of just been one god but numerous gods with lesser status.
3) There is no evidence to support the benevolent God for classical Theism --> the evil in the world suggests the craetor wasnt omnibenevolent.
4) Its a weak analogy (Aquinas likens the universe to a machine). Hume thought that the analogy shoukd of used a vegatable or an inert aniamal, because they are natural rather than a watch